Indonesian dating sites

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Hominid history. Just how many human and primate ancestors are there? Well, possibly at least 2 more.

2020.10.15 21:59 aazav Hominid history. Just how many human and primate ancestors are there? Well, possibly at least 2 more.

While we are thinking about what branch of life that Bigfoot can come from, we've been thinking about Gigantopithecus blacki, considering the snouted ones reminiscent of baboons or Dinopithecus and recently the gibbon, Hylobatidae. Not to mention the interesting lesser known candidates such as Oreopithecus, Sivapithecus and Pliopithecus.
As it happens, it wasn't so long ago that new human ancestors were discovered. Homo floresiensis, Homo naledi, Homo denisova, are all recent discoveries. IIRC, one of my posts here may have indicated additional Flores-like fossil human species on other islands in the Pacific islands between Australia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.
Even research from 2016 indicates that there may be another undiscovered human species which has been found in an analysis of indigenous Australians.
https://www.sciencealert.com/pacific-islanders-appear-to-be-carrying-the-dna-of-an-unknown-human-species
Yet, within the past ten years, discovery of denisova and naledi have started to indicate just how many varieties of pre humans there have been on this planet with H. naledi being the most surprisingly well preserved finds to date.
Well, I hope you are sitting down.
This info is barely a month old and nothing has been published about it yet. The discoverer of H. naledi in South Africa, by Lee Rogers Berger, found H. naledi with Rick Hunter and Steve Tucker in the Rising Star cave system, 31 miles north of Johannesburg just 7 years ago.
Today, I was listening to podcasts and heard something that passed by quickly. Something from Lee Berger about another hominid just found within the past 3 weeks.
Lee mentioned that remains of a completely different hominid in another cave system 200 meters away from the cave where Homo naledi was discovered has been found.
It's a different creature. Another hominid and a big toothed hominid. And that's all I have on it according to Lee Berger.
They are still figuring out what it is. Nothing's been written of published on this as of yet. Lee just spoke about the discovery on the latest podcast of The Naked Scientists.
He starts talking about it for a few minutes starting at 00:01:00 in the BBC 5 Live Science Podcast. He only speaks about it for a minute and a half though. It's a completely different human ancestor.
https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/p08tw2c9 Lee Berger is from University of the Witwatersrand in scenic downtown South Africa.
The denisovians were found in a Siberian cave. H. floresiensis was found on the Indonesian island of Flores. But so much is coming out of SA, it's just awesome. The discovery site is near Krugersdorp too.
If this cave was 200M away from Rising Star Cave, I wonder just what else might be buried right under our feet.
Lee seemed to indicate that there were other discoveries too, and at the 52 minute mark he mentions a little more, but not much. I can't wait to see what ends up being found. He says that there were "dozens and dozens of our closest relatives like ours and adaptations like ours that have (existed) until the last million years…"
And for more info on some of the species I mentioned, here we go.
http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/o/oreopithecus.html
http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/d/dinopithecus.html
http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/g/gigantopithecus.html
http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/p/pliopithecus.html
http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/s/sivapithecus.html
Note: I'd like a second set of eyes for those qualified in the field to vet that the links I'm providing are indeed accurate and do not coutain misleading, outdated or incorrect information. Also, please reply to any mistakes in the above text so that they can be fixed.
Cheers.
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2020.10.13 18:25 HaulA13Octl1 What you are looking for is..... (Link in the Desc.)2

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https://preview.redd.it/d5svgfxt1ws51.jpg?width=300&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8c6fe69e6bb26eb4b9f25713f865fd71e55348bc
submitted by HaulA13Octl1 to u/HaulA13Octl1 [link] [comments]


2020.10.02 16:02 Hakorr Universal Bypass - Changelog

Universal Bypass

Changelog

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submitted by Hakorr to UniversalBypass [link] [comments]


2020.09.30 04:17 TheCuulandBluu Bizarre, uncomfortable experience while researching naturism (Purenudism)

Preface: doing a bit of research on here, it seems people are already well aware of Purenudism and its related sites, but I'd still like to post what I wrote.

I don't know where else to talk about this. I feel as though I can't bring it up with anyone I know personally, as I don't want people knowing what I've been looking into. But maybe people in this community can understand my trouble. I'm going to be censoring a lot of imagery. If any of this is in violation of the rules, please let me know where I can discuss this. I also understand that by bringing this up I may be unintentionally Streisand-ing certain things that I don't want to get extra attention, but I don't know which would be worse, bringing it up or remaining silent.
TL;DR - while researching naturism, I came across a network of very similar-looking sites (purenudism) that I suspect are displaying naturist photos containing underage people for the purposes of pornographic use.
Long version:
I draw a lot, and lately my art has taken on themes of nudity and nature. As such, I've been getting notices of people adding it to nudist/naturist art collections. As time went on, I became more curious about naturism, so I decided to do more research.
If you search "naturism" in Google, you get this - pretty standard affair. Wikipedia article, some naturist organizations, etc. Thing is, I don't use Google; I use an engine called DuckDuckGo because they don't track your history and whatnot. And they, along with Bing as I found out, give very different results. Searching "naturism" on DDG gives this. Notice that safesearch is set to moderate. Funnily enough, if you turn it completely off, the Wikipedia article shows up, but then so do a lot of porn sites. The same sites take the top slots though.
I visited the first link in the results and this is what I saw. I'm going to censor images, but it's basically a Wordpress blog with a crapton of nudist photos, featuring people of all ages - young and old. Nude beaches, nude gatherings in the forest, etc. It looks like a family album, just one where everyone's undressed. Many of the photos have the subjects looking and smiling at the camera. It's quite friendly, and I know that if I were to visit a nudist/naturist resort I'd probably be greeted by the same imagery in person, minus the photography of course.
You might notice that at the top there's a page labeled "legal notice". If you visit it, you'll find a rather long post about how nothing there is illegal, nudity is a human right, it's protected by the US Constitution, etc. etc. I understand this is fairly necessary given today's mass paranoia, especially when minors get involved.
Okay - so far so good, right? Sounds like I'm just being paranoid. And hey, a site full of nude people of all ages and genders is great for art studies. But here's where things start to get weird. If you go back to the search results, you'll notice there are two other sites with very similar titles and descriptions. The word "purenudism" gets used a lot. And if you visit them you'll notice that they look nearly identical to the first site, with many of them sporting a very similar legal notice. (Side note - I'm not censoring urls because it's very easy to find these sites anyway) In fact, the first site actually links to two separate sites in the header, each with similar formats. When searching the first two pages of results on DDG, I found around ten of these sites, seven of which have nearly the exact same legal notice. And the further you go into the search results, the more of these sites you find. Now I'm not stupid - I know there are dark sites out there, even ones who will try to put on a friendly facade. But what baffles me is that these all seem to come from the same entity, they're all in the top results, and there are so many of them.
These sites have varying degrees of dubiousness. Among all the benign-looking naturism stuff you'll find links like "voyeur beaches" or "nudist girls" or "young/teen nudists". Some of the site headers include images of hentai or cropped porn, along with links featuring very adult-oriented tags. And right next to all that will be pictures of nude children. One of the sites has a set of naturist images which include minors, along with a badge in the header saying, "100% legal" and porn links on the side. And of course it includes the same legal notice as all the others.
The sites appear to be based in various countries. Some seem to be in Russia or Ukraine (or at least mention them a lot) and one in particular has an Indonesian domain but features a copyright in Norway. But no matter what country they're in, they're all written in English (poorly) and their legal notices focus primarily on US law.
I could probably keep going down the rabbit hole, but I think you get the point. I highly doubt these sites exist to show the values of naturism and promote the lifestyle. It seems more like they're there to distribute nude photos of minors for purposes of sexual gratification, while hiding under the guise of being naturist blogs. Their emphasis on it being "NOT A PORN SITE" seems less a decrying of paranoia and more a statement of, "Fuck you, it's not illegal."
I have so many questions. How many people are involved with making and running these sites? They all seem to be kept fairly up to date. Where did all the photos come from? Do the people in them know what they're being used for? Why are DuckDuckGo and Bing so eager to place these as the top results? Why are people so slimy?
I don't know what to do. It feels like a problem I can't solve. But mostly I just feel sad. It's a grim reminder that there are a lot of very bad people doing very bad things out there. This isn't the first time I've been introduced to the subject of naturism only for it to take a turn for the worse, and I know there are much deeper, darker places than just this. It's no wonder there's such high paranoia. It feels like you really can't trust anyone. Which sucks, because nudism on that level looks to be an incredible, spiritually fulfilling experience that I currently cannot do.
That's all I can think to say. Thanks for reading.
submitted by TheCuulandBluu to nudism [link] [comments]


2020.09.05 03:29 StevenStevens43 The British Olduwan

The British Olduwan
Olduvai gorge:
One of the most important archaeological and anthropological sites in the world, in understanding the earliest known origins of Human-being, comes from a location known as Olduvai gorge in Tanzania, were Oldowan is thought to have first began evolving in to modern human, 1.9 million years ago.
Olduvai gorge
The Olduvai Gorge it has proven invaluable in furthering understanding of early human evolution.

Homo habilis, approximately 1.9 million years ago
Link for photo
However, it is likely that Olduwan was born from inter-racial breeding
Oldowan:
It appears one of the first things Oldowan man done, was go seeking for lands, perhaps a little cooler in temperature, as Olduwan, 1.8 million years ago first appeared in Georgia, Europe.
In fact, by 1 million years ago, Olduwan man had even turned up in the area that would be considered modern day London.
Pre-history of Europe
Homo erectus georgicus, which lived roughly 1.8 million years ago in Georgia), is the earliest hominid to have been discovered in Europe.
Link for photo
Olduwan expansion
Indonesia:
Other Oldowans headed for Indonesia.
Paleolithic
Homo erectus in Indonesia by 1.8 million years
Link for photo_without_national_boundaries.svg)
Russia:
1.5 million years ago, Oldowan man entered Russia, by the Caucasus, which leads in to Scandanavia from the Northern land bridge, which still exists today.
Pre-history
In 2006, 1.5-million-year-old Oldowan flint tools were discovered in the Dagestan Akusha region of the north Caucasus,
Link for photo.svg)
Dagestan
China:
China 1.35m years ago
Paleolithic)
Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago.[9]
Link for photo
Return of Oldowan:
It would appear one of Olduwans descendants, likely returned to Africa around, 300,000 BC, via europe. Crossing the Gibraltar straits.
Paleolithic
the Acheulean. Possibly the first hunters, H. erectus mastered the art of making fire and was the first hominid to leave Africa, colonizing most of Afro-Eurasia and perhaps later giving rise to Homo floresiensis.

The earliest known Homo sapiens fossils include the Jebel Irhoud remains from Morocco (ca. 315,000 years ago),[12]

Don't take offence:
Ok, now, it is likely that the first modern humans, are still around today, in the exact same form they were then. And today, they are classed as "intelligent modern humans".
They were likely, "the pygmy peoples".
The reason they were likely the same people, as todays pygmy peoples, comes from the knowledge that the Jebel Irhoud, were extremely small in size.
Morphology
The Jebel Irhoud individuals also had very thick brow ridges and lacked prognathism.[18]
Link for photo
Magdalenian:
Now, anthropoligical studies pretty much prove, that the Magdalenians that inhabited mainland europe between 17,000 BC and the onset of the younger dryas, were the same people as Jebel Irhoud.
Period biology
The fauna of the Magdalenian epoch seems to have included tigers .
Magdalenian humans appear to have been of short stature, dolichocephalic, with a low retreating forehead and prominent brow ridges.
Link for photo
Magdalenian expansion
Cheddar man:
The map above does not attribute Southern parts of Britain, to have been colonialised by the Magdalenians, however Britains oldest known skeleton is Cheddar man, believed to be from around 9,100 BC, and also thought by anthropologists, to be black in skin colour.
Cheddar man
Cheddar Man is a human male fossil found in Gough's Cave in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, England. The skeletal remains date to the Mesolithic (ca. 9100 BP, 7100 BC) and dark or dark to black skin.[2]
Link for photo
Doggerland:
The reason it would have been so easy for the Magdalene to colonise Thames valley, would be due to the fact that, not only would they have the brain capacity to cross the Gibraltar straits, they would also have the advantage of being able to cross the Doggerland land bridge, which had not sunk yet, until 6,500 BC.
Doggerland
Doggerland was an area of land, now submerged beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Britain to continental Europe. It was flooded by rising sea levels around 6500–6200 BC.
Link for photo
Doggerland
Pygmy peoples:
Pygmy peoples of today, can be found mostly in the Congo region of Africa.
They are a peoples which typically average a height of less than 4 ft 11.
Pygmy peoples
In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short. The term pygmyism is used to describe the phenotype of endemic short stature (as opposed to disproportionate dwarfism occurring in isolated cases in a population) for populations in which adult men are on average less than 150 cm (4 ft 11 in) tall.[1]
The term is primarily associated with the African Pygmies, the hunter-gatherers of the Congo basin (comprising the Bambenga, Bambuti and Batwa).[2]
Link for photo
Pygmy peoples
Effacer le Tableau:
Whilst the only noticable difference between you, and a Pygmy person, is their small stature, and the fact that even today, they are hunter gatherers, despite some politically correct Scientists insisting that Pygmy peoples are not descended from Hunter gatherers, the Pygmy peoples have been the victims of repeated attempted genocides and extermination campaigns.
Most recently, January 2003.
Violence against pygmy peoples
From the end of 2002 through January 2003 around 60,000 pygmy civilians and 10,000 combatants were killed in an extermination campaign known as "Effacer le Tableau" during the Second Congo War.[27][28] Human rights activists have made demands for the massacre to be recognized as genocide.[29]
Link for photo
Baka dancers
Bantu master:
Even "today" the Bantu make no bones about the fact that they are the pygmy peoples "masters".
Perhaps it makes them feel big.
However even "you" have joined in, on Pygmy genocidal bullying, without even knowing it, or have you never used the term "mongo", in your younger years?
Mongo, is a pygmy language, aswell as a Pygmy location.
The word Mongo, should not be used disparagingly.
But unless you want to be part of a genocide campaign, you should also not ban the word from your vocabulary.
Simply use it, respectfully.
To put in to simple terms.
If a pygmy person went on the internet, and told everyone he was a Mongo, he would likely be banned, by a well meaning leftist, that does not realise that, this this person, really is from a village called Mongo, near congo, and speaks Mongo, and banning this person is about the most insulting and racial discriminative thing one could possibly do.
Reported slavery
In the Republic of the Congo, where Pygmies make up 2% of the population, many Pygmies live as slaves to Bantu masters. The nation is deeply stratified between these two major ethnic groups. The pygmy slaves belong to their Bantu masters from birth in a relationship that the Bantus call a time-honored tradition. Even though the Pygmies are responsible for much of the hunting, fishing and manual labor in jungle villages, Pygmies and Bantus alike say that Pygmies are often paid at the master's whim: in cigarettes, used clothing, or simply not paid at all.
Link for photo.png)
Pygmy language centres
Zoos:
Discimination against pygmy peoples is not new.
Pygmy peoples, even recently, have been sent to live in zoo cages next to Lions and Tigers, and many people view Pygmy peoples, as Paleolithics.
Even in the USA, as early as 1907, they were viewed as a circus act, alongside animals.
Systematic discrimination
Historically, the pygmy have always been viewed as inferior by both colonial authorities and the village-dwelling Bantu tribes.[15] Pygmy children were sometimes captured during the period of the Congo Free State, which exported pygmy children to zoos throughout Europe, including the world's fair in the United States in 1907.[15]
Link for photo
Pygmy person in Bronx zoo cage 1906
Pepi II:
Even as far back as 2297 BC, a 13 year old Egyptian pharoah named Pepi II, took great delight in capturing a pygmy person, and bragged about to everyone in Egypt.
The Egytians begged him not to kill the pygmy person, but instead bring the Pygmy person back to Egypt.
Likely to be used for entertainment purposes.
Early years of Pepi II's reign
Sent to trade and collect ivory, ebony, and other precious items, he captured a pygmy. News of this reached the royal court, and an excited young king sent word back to Harkhuf that he would be greatly rewarded if the pygmy were brought back alive, where he would have likely served as an entertainer for the court.
Link for photo
Iymeru:
But what do we learn from this?
We learn that modern humans from 300,000 BC had the potential to be extremely literate, intelligent, and that the idea that even Olduwan may have been an Ape, is simply misguided ancient discrimination and racism, and was genocided, quite simply because he was too stubborn to give up his traditions, and likely lacked physical build in order to stick up for himself against bigots that likely wrongfully viewed him as an illiterate fool.
However Pygmy peoples are regarded by Scientists, as modern humans.
And pygmy peoples, such as Iymeru, have been in even the highest positions of the ancient Egyptian empire.
Iymeru, was the second most powerful man in Egypt, during the 13th dynasty.
He was the Pharoahs vizier.
So much for Pepi II's circus act.
Iymeru)
Iymeru was an ancient Egyptian vizier) in office during the 13th Dynasty.
Link for photo#/media/File:Statue_Iymeru_Turin.JPG)
Iymeru
Indian pygmies:
However, there is a twist in the tale.
It appears more likley, that the magdalenian Pygmies, "were not" in fact the same pygmy peoples as todays Congo contingent, but in actual fact, were more likely Indian pygmies.
The African pygmies likely took the long way round the world, instead of going directly across the Gibraltar straits.
South east Asia
Frank Kingdon-Ward in the early 20th century reported a tribe of pygmy Tibeto-Burman speakers known as the Taron inhabiting the remote region of Mt. Hkakabo Razi in Southeast Asia on the border of China (Yunnan and Tibet), Burma, and India.
Link for photo
Indian Pygmy
Indo-European
The reason it was more likley Indian pygmies, than African pygmies, comes from the fact that there is plenty more evidence, which i will reveal later, of Indian descended people, having colonised Europe, and even America.
Not only this, one of the most common languages in todays world, is Indo-European.
Indo-European likley was a language that evolved over thousands of years, likely in stages, and likley due to pro-longed exposure to one anothers culture.
Indo-Aryan first arose in the Levant around the time of the ancient egyptian empire, when Indians and Aryans colonized lower egypt.
Indo-European evolved when Indo-Aryans invaded India during the battle of the ten kings in 1400 BC.
Though, it was likley that the Aryan language, already contained certain Indo components, by the time the colonized Egypt, and those were probably picked up from the Magdalenian period, when Aryans likely had to invade european mainland to escape the polar ice-caps, and integrated with Megdalenians.
Though, Indian genes in the northern hemisphere even pre-dated the Magdalenians, which i will cover later, so it is also likely, that when the Aryans invaded european mainland, and integrated with Magdalenians, their Aryan language already contained Indo components.
We can also see by the photo of the Philippino girl, how Anthropologists could mistake Cheddar man for being black.
This is due to the fact, that Indians, "are" descended from Africans, so, in a round about way, the Magdalenian "are" African pygmies, though not as directly as one would first think.
It is likley that the Magdalenian arrived in europe via India.
Though they likely made their escape, over the Gibraltar straits, the place were it all began.
Saudi Arabia:
Whilst it is actually likely, that modern day human was already living in Scandanavia, and even european mainland, as far back as 300,000 years ago, it is most probably that any evidence of this, was washed away during the younger dryas, when both Britain and Scandanavia, lay under polar ice-caps.
But the first "recorded" movement of modern day humans, comes from 75,000 years ago when Africans first entered the Arabian peninsula.
Pre-history
A 2011 study found that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75,000 years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting the Horn of Africa and Arabia.[56]
Link for photo
Arabian expansion
India:
Modern human, from the Arabian peninsula, arrived in India, sometime between 80,000 and 60,000 years ago.
Paleolithic
"Modern human beings—Homo sapiens—originated in Africa. Then, intermittently, sometime between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, tiny groups of them began to enter the north-west of the Indian subcontinent.
Link for photo
Israel:
As Israel was in Mesopotamia, Africans travelling to the Arabian peninsula, Indonesia, or anywhere else, would have no other option than to go through the Levant, making Israel one of the earliest populated areas by modern human.
120,000 years ago.
And almost definitely Black African.
Pre-history
The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominins, who lived in the area that is now northern Israel 120,000 years ago.[85]
Link for photo
Neanderthal man:
The best evidence of what Neanderthal man looked like, comes from very well preserved remains of Neanderthals found in Shanidar cave in Iraq.
The remains were thought to be from between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, and they do point to a slightly different culture sharing the lands of Mesopotamia, with Africans.
Iraq pre-history
During 1957–1961 Shanidar Cave was excavated by Ralph Solecki and his team from Columbia University, and nine skeletons of Neanderthal man of varying ages and states of preservation and completeness (labelled Shanidar I–IX) were discovered dating from 60,000–80,000 years BP.
Link for photo
Neanderthal man
Neanderthal:
Neanderthals got a bad rap.
There is no doubt Neanderthal was Asiatic.
And do you remember Pepi II? That wonderful African pharoah that delightfully hunted down a "pygmy" when he was a boy? Well, this African also took great delight in carrying on the honoured age old African tradition of "smiting" Asiatics.
Well racism and discrimination is actually quite prevalent within the ancient egyptian dynasties, and an ancient old traditional practise of native egyptians smiting inferior Asiatics, can be traced back to 3000 BC, during the reign of Den.
The depiction even included a "bearded" foe.
Events#Events)
The picture shows Den in a gesture known as "smiting the enemy". In one hand Den holds a mace, in the other hand he grabs a foe by his hair. Thanks to the braids and the conic beard the foe has been identified as of Asian origin. The hieroglyphs at the right side say "first smiting of the east".
Link for photo
Smiting asiatics
Literate:
Now, i am hoping i no longer have to go in to too much detail about how, in actual fact, Scientists now think Neanderthal man was likely literate, and actually extremely intelligent.
In fact, intelligent Africans "would not" interbreed with an idiot.
And Neanderthal man did breed with other humans in this area.
In fact, breeding with Neanderthal man, is likely where Africans gained a bit more bulk from, by breeding with a person that is derived from Northern sub grouos, that have grown to be a bit bulkier in bulk, in order to with stand the cold winters.
He also likely was 50/50 in providing the components that would later evolve in to the AfrAsian language, that is spoken by Semites, and Arabians, as well as some Africans, but nobody knows were it evolved from.
Neanderthal
Neanderthal technology is thought to have been quite sophisticated.
Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals had a more robust) build and proportionally shorter limbs. These features are often explained as adaptations to conserve heat in a cold climate,
Neanderthal got cornered in Spain:
Now just like the previous two groups, Neanderthal, being from european mainland, and who still exists today, got cornered in Spain, by this new anatomically modern human-being.
Inter-group relations
Canadian ethnoarchaeologist Brian Hayden calculated a self-sustaining population which avoids inbreeding to consist of about 450–500 individuals, which would necessitate these bands to interact with 8–53 other bands, but more likely the more conservative estimate given low population density.[31] Analysis of the mtDNA of the Neanderthals of Cueva del Sidrón, Spain, showed that the adult three men belonged to the same maternal lineage, while the three adult women belonged to different ones. This suggests a patrilocal residence (that a woman moved out of her group to live with her husband).[233] However, the DNA of a Neanderthal from Denisova Cave, Russia, shows that she had an inbreeding coefficient of ​1⁄8 (her parents were either half-siblings with a common mother, double first cousins, an uncle and niece or aunt and nephew, or a grandfather and granddaughter or grandmother and grandson)[83] and the inhabitants of Cueva del Sidrón show several defects, which may have been caused by inbreeding or recessive disorders.[218]
Link for photo
Neanderthal
Anatomically modern people:
Now, do you remember the Magdalenians from earlier in this post?
Well here is a photo of Anatomically modern people.
Early modern human
Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH)[2] are terms used to distinguish Homo sapiens (the only extant human species) that are anatomically consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from extinct archaic human species. This distinction is useful especially for times and regions where anatomically modern and archaic humans co-existed, for example, in Paleolithic Europe.
Link for photo
Early modern human
Neanderthal did not get wiped out:
The early modern human however, did not wipe Neanderthal out.
They shared european mainland with other literate human-beings.
Some of those human-beings, particularly the ones from Britain, that at this point in time, is just a part of Eurasia, probably looked more like this.

Western neanderthal
Denisovan:
Now, Neanderthal not only spread out from Mesopotamia along European lines, and escaped via Spain, but also along Northern lines, before escaping in to Canada via the Bering land bridge, that was around at the time.
However, the remains are no longer considered to be that of Neadnerthal, but in fact, that of Denisovan, the ancestor of Australian aboriginals, as well as Inuits and Paleo-Indians in America, and others.
Pre-history
That Russia was also home to some of the last surviving Neanderthals was revealed by the discovery of the partial skeleton of a Neanderthal infant in Mezmaiskaya cave in Adygea, which was carbon dated to only 29,000 years ago.[6] In 2008, Russian archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Novosibirsk, working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia, uncovered a 40,000-year-old small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile hominin, which DNA analysis revealed to be a previously unknown species of human, which was named the Denisova hominin.[7]
Link for photo.jpg)
Denisovan
Lapland:
Now, it is likely that Paleo-Indians lived in europe, relatively peacefully, with one another.
At least until the younger dryas, when blond haired blue eyed Aryans from Scandinavia had to invade European mainland.
It is likely what happened during this period, is Aryans became less friendly, and forced Anatomically modern humans to flee via Spain, go and live in the Northern regions and peripheries as Eskimos in Iglus, or go and breed with the current Indigenous peoples of America and Australia and update their DNA.
When the Ice-caps melted, Scandinavians likely returned to Scandinavia, and pushed the Sami people farther and farther north, until they could go no farther north, and to this day, there is a peoples in the most Northern regions of Scandanavia and Russia that regard themselves as the indigenous peoples of Scandinavia and Russia.
They are called the Sami peoples.
You have likley heard of them, without realising it.
They are Laplanders.
The place Santa Klaus is from.
Sami people
The Sámi people (/ˈsɑːmi/; also spelled Sami or Saami) are an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula within the Murmansk Oblast of Russia. The Sámi have historically been known in English as Lapps or Laplanders. Sámi ancestral lands are not well-defined. Their traditional languages are the Sámi languages which are classified as a branch of the Uralic language family.
Link for photo
Sami peoples
Indigenous Americans:
The Indigenous colonisation of the Americas happened in two waves.
The first was between 57,000 BC and 17,000 BC.
However a Polar Ice wall prevented the first arrivals from prevailing any farther than Alaska.
Migrations in to the continents
Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist. The Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska (East Beringia) for thousands of years.[53]
Second wave:
Just as the Polar ice wall in Alaska was beginning to melt, and the ice-caps began shifting towards Britain and Scandinavia, the Aryans likely came down from the Northern lands, and many Paleo-Indians likely fleed across the melting Bering land bridge and got over just in time, to breed with Indigenous Alaskans, and populate the Americas.
Canada pre-history
The first inhabitants of North America are generally hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago.[23]
South America:
Obviously some Paleo-Indians made it over the Ice-wall prior to the second wave arriving, as archaeologists are of the belief that South America saw it's first arrivals around 16,500 BC.
Pre-columbian era
The earliest archaeological evidence from human settlement in South America comes from Monte Verde (possibly as early as 16,500 BCE).[11]
Isolation:
Until the arrival of the Spanish during the Columbian era, Paleo-Indians would have been pretty isolated, with not too much opportunity for evolving, so the 1500 AD perfectly intact mummified Inca sacrifice, would give a good clue as to what the Paleo-Indians that arrived 14,000 years ago, or even 57,000 years ago, looked like.
Link for photo
Inca sacrifice
The Australian aboriginals have a similar ancestry.
The fact that modern Australian aboriginals have the exact same ancestors as US Indigenous peoples, and were hunter gatherers when Aryans first arrived in Australia, despite making crossings on land bridges on two seperate sides of the globe, is pretty much suggestive that early modern anatomical Indonesians inhabited most of the globe, and were very much literate. And modern, and they in turn were likely descended from a mixture of Israeli Neanderthal and Afro pygmy persons.
Pre-history
Human habitation of the Australian continent is known to have begun at least 65,000 years ago,[45][46] with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia.[47] The Madjedbebe rock shelter in Arnhem Land is recognised as the oldest site showing the presence of humans in Australia.[48] The oldest human remains found are the Lake Mungo remains, which have been dated to around 41,000 years ago.[49]
At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies.[53
Greenland:
The Paleo-Indonesians even found their way to Greenland by 2500 BC.
Early Paleo eskimo cultures
In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today primarily through archaeological finds. The earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC.
And the photo just goes to show, the farther North you get, the whiter you get, as ones skin evolves to adapt to the cold.
And when you get even farther north, the redder you get.
Link to photo.jpg)
Greenlandic Inuit couple
Summary:
But, the point is, that blond haired blue eyed Aryans almost definitely pre-dated the younger dryas, and they moved southward, and any trace of their previous existence was wiped out by one of humanities greatest ever Cataclysms when an entire sub-contentent, and an Island, was cut in half from manland europe.
All this happened between only 6500 and 11,000 BC.
The northward movements that have been attributed to the populating of Britain and Scandinavia, and the sudden appearance of white blue eyed people, was actually a "re-population", and they already lived in those lands previous to that.
They had lived and evolved in those lands, ever since Oldowan turned up in the Thames valley 1 million BC, and 1.5 million BC in Russia.
But until the younger dryas came and wiped any history of them out, they had no real reason to make any significant appearance on european mainland, were archaeological evidence would be preserved.
And that is why the first archaeological evidence of white man only appears after and during the Younger dryas.
However britain was likely not originally inhabited by pure Aryans.
Pure Aryans likely began colonising Britain only after the Northward migrations.
And even then. they likley shared the Island with Greekish looking people, as well as possibly even remnants of Indonesians, and the place likely got divided after Doggerland sank, and Scandinavians eventually began adding Britain to their North sea expansion.
Likely beginning around 3000 BC, with the invention of their Hjortspring boat.
Bronze age
Thousands of rock carvings from this period depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships, suggest that ships and seafaring played an important role in the culture at large. The depicted ships most likely represent sewn plank built canoes used for warfare, fishing and trade. These ship types may have their origin as far back as the neolithic period and they continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as exemplified by the Hjortspring boat.[43]
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.08.18 08:40 True_A3r0z An Attempt to Debunk "Aloe's" Twitcast Video.

[August 30, 2020 Edit: Mano Aloe is no longer a part of Hololive. She has retired of her own volition. I’d link the statement, but everything hurts right now. I might in the future. I hope she stays safe and can recover. I will leave this post up, hopefully as an archive others and I can look back on. Please stay safe, everyone.
I wish only the best for you, Aloe. さよなら.]
As some of you may know, 5th gen. Hololive member Mano Aloe has been reprimanded for two weeks because of an issue with not deleting her L2D model test, as stated in her apology video here:
https://youtu.be/kXsyY4bbyPI
The L2D test happened around May of 2020. However, a video that has been circulating pertaining to one of her old twitcast personas has started gaining traction and being used as a reason as to why some people want her banned, as the information contained in it has sensitive information. (This video has been addressed to be around October of 2019, and was discussed to be true after I made this post). I would like to address some of its concerns, and why it's malignity seems false to me. It should be mentioned that Cover Corp, nor Aloe has addressed this issue officially from what I've seen. For the sake of this post, I'll link the video at the end for reference, mostly to compare the points I'm about to say. Based on the events surrounding the situation, I believe the video itself to be harmless, and should not be used against Aloe. Here's what I've deduced:
  1. The timeline doesn't add up.
In the video, the person in question states that they will have to delete their account per the company's rules by the end of the year. They also bring up that a Vtuber from Nijisanji, Kudou Chitose, recently retired. They are also acquaintances according to the person. Her retirement was on August 28, 2019. With this in mind, the video should have taken place between August 28, 2019, and December 31, 2019. The problem most people find with this video is that she ended up leaking personal information about Chitose, a Nijisanji vtuber, while being scouted for Hololive, the company many assume to be the one she was in at the time. However, that's a huge leap in time if true.
Auditions for the 3rd gen of Hololive (Rushia, Marine, Noel, Flare, Pekora) started on June 13, 2019, a couple months before Chitose retired. On December 25, 2019, the 4th generation of Hololive (Coco, Watame, Kanata, Luna, Towa) were announced. The person in question talks about deleting her old accounts, including her current one, because of the fact that she was already a part of the company. Aloe did not make it into 3rd gen, and if she was scouted to be a part of Hololive at that time, would have been set to be a part of the 4th gen. Since 5th gen's announcement was on August 6th, there's nearly an eight month minimal gap between when she stated she needed to delete her account, and when she was announced. There is almost no way Hololive waited almost an entire year for Aloe to be able to debut.
  1. Chitose's private information was already established to have been found out and out in the open.
[Edit: IMPORTANT NEW INFO. I have been having discussions with some Japanese Hololive fans on YouTube. They are all quite civil, and are very understanding. It turns out that what the person in the video stated may be false information. As in the reason why Chitose left Nijisanji may be false or a rumor. This is based around three reasons according to a couple of users: 1. She retired and moved to another company and officially stated it was because she wanted to focus on music at the time. 2. (DeepL translates this weirdly, but) The "driver" of Nijisanji still keeps in contact with Kudou Chitose. 3. It's a rumor that has spread around Nijisanji for a while. I don't have any actual evidence for this, but it does explain some of the issues fans have with her.
If true, this may be a high point of contention as to why Japanese fans are upset about the video. If you can, please search for a user named "海外ファン" on Aloe's apology video and upvote it so more Japanese people can see it, the link to the comment is here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kXsyY4bbyPI&lc=UgyfIzavc9g6_JSD9I54AaABAg
I find it very valuable to have all sides discuss this issue. And if you do participate in the discussion, please be civil, as you would here.]
For those who don't know, the person in the video referred to Chitose by one of her aliases, and also gave the reason for her retirement. Many point to this violating the contract between her and Hololive, since it's illegal to give out personal information under contract. I have not personally found any accounts or threads that give away Chitose's personal information, and if I did, I would not give it out for the public to see anyway, regardless of the rules here. HOWEVER, I did find this Reddit thread pertaining to Kudou Chitose, and a comment caught my eye (I will spoiler the thread and comment it here for those who want it):
Might Be Unrelated, But Are They The Same People?
"Yes and yes. She's misposted chitose's stream notifications on rei's twitter multiple times.
Ema's manager explicitly wrote an explanation that they did not headhunt her into their group, she came to them instead. Ema wrote a similar piece explaining why she joined.
Although it was a vague explanation at most and didn't give actual names/identities, it was clearly aimed towards Chitose/ShiroseRei fans."
The person behind Chitose had accidentally slipped info on her identity by herself, if I deduce that statement correctly. This thread was made about six months ago, but it's safe to assume that people have known about it for a while before that thread was made. So the information itself is not only old news by today's standards, but has also been information the person themself has ended up releasing, be it by a mistake. The idea that her releasing this information to the public would endanger Nijisanji as a corporation no longer holds any weight.
[EDIT: I have talked with someone who claims that Chitose's alias had been found out very early, around when she debuted, possibly. Although there is no proof I could find about it, I will leave this here as a possible source of evidence against the paragraph down below.] There is, however, a flaw in this argument that I am not able to give evidence for, because I do not know when the situation about Chitose started happening. According to the person in the video, it happened before Chitose retired, and was in fact the whole reason she retired, but I have not found any information of that on Reddit, nor does Chitose or her official name come up in any 2chan thread pertaining to her actual identity and info when I searched for them, though I do not know how to navigate that site well enough to be certain. However, if we are to assume that what the person in the video is saying to be true, and that the leaks have already happened, then she is by no means at fault for revealing that information, especially right now, since:
  1. Based on Point 1, she was not recruited to Hololive at that time, so there was no contract to breach about confidentiality
  2. The info was already leaked, meaning the information she gave was already revealed
  3. She was technically just a random twitcaster at the time using a different account based on point 1, she has little to no accountability for that as the character Mano Aloe, even if she became a major source of that info leak at the time (and if it really was a big deal, Hololive never would have recruited her in the first place)
  4. The livestream has been reported to have around 19 viewers, and seemed to have the intention of being deleted based on her comments about being sad to erase her channel at the time, meaning she probably did not make any effort to purposefully expand or make the information public
  5. Is, if her statements are true, Chitose's acquaintance
  6. Did not seem to use it in a malicious manner, but instead used it to bring up the risks and sad reality of some Vtubers/Idols, as well as some management/corporations judging by her conversations
Taking all of this into account, it seems logical to believe that it was fine for her to talk about those kinds of topics.
  1. The company in the video sounds different to how Hololive is, even then.
One of the first points she brings up is the fact that since she has joined some larger company, she will need her different accounts, such as her Twitcast account, deleted.
Immediately, this raises red flags. Why? Because multiple Hololivers have alternate accounts that they use to stream while also being affiliated with Hololive. I will not link their channels in this post, as it is irrelevant to the main topic. The point is, this conflicts with her statement that her alternate accounts must be deleted, and if true, means that some of the Hololivers in question would currently be in violation of Hololive's rules, since this video happened after August of 2019. But they're not; in fact, if anything, it's basically an open secret at this point.
She also has stated that the company she works in she considers to be a "black company," as it has placed many restrictions on its members. Now, in fairness, a lot of what she has said can line up with Hololive's business practices, such as having comms for work and personal life, or dating anyone IRL, as companies value a worker's anonymity and public image in this field.
HOWEVER, this company also sounds way too harsh for a company like Hololive. For one, she emphasizes how little freedom she has in the company, including her accounts, games, and interactions with others, and uses words like "severe," "tough," and "very strict." Hololive, if I remember correctly, does not try and limit what its members can or cannot play, nor the people they interact with on streams (Remember Minato Aqua's Super Smash Bros Ultimate debacle with that famous player? That was fan backlash, not company backlash, meaning she was most likely free to have that kind of interaction via. the management. Not to mention the player was specifically male as well, which is why fans got so angry afterwards in addition to having to wait longer). Nijisanji at one point had those types of restrictions due to other company policies, as Sasaki Saku's case shows, but no videos have surfaced in Hololive's case in translations from what I've watched.
She has also stated in the video, according to the translation, that "It's (the account she posted it on) probably found out, but nobody has said anything yet." While this statement can't be deemed 100% factual since she's assuming it, if her account really was found out by her company... why didn't they do anything about it, if she really was under contract by Hololive? If she really poses that much of a threat to them now, then why didn't they cut ties with her right then and there? Because the company she was under at the time was not Hololive. That's the only reason for the discrepancy to make sense. And guess what? Now the video can't be used as legitimate evidence against Aloe if this indeed is true.
4. We don't even know if this is Aloe, regardless of voice or not. And even then, why dig for this with the intention of slandering her?
This one is less of a debunking, and more of a technicality of this situation.
If you asked me for my opinion, then yes, she sounds like Aloe. I can also have the opinion that the Earth is flat, but that's not what makes it true. We have no idea if this person is even related to Aloe, let alone Aloe herself. Unless Cover Corp or Aloe herself bring this topic up to reprimand her, then this whole video could be fabricated for all we know. And the apology video she put up in no way specified the video in question, it was about her L2D model being leaked. So basically, if that person really is her, then she's getting harassed for something that isn't even that big of a deal, and if that person isn't her, then she's getting harassed for something she never even did in the first place.
I understand that confirmation from the source is a slippery slope that can lead to confidential information being leaked. I also understand that it seems unreasonable to go so far when the voice and mannerisms are so similar. That's why sometimes it's better to assume for certain cases. This is a case we shoudn't assume for. This video has the potential to ruin her livelihood as a streamer, or even as a person, and seeing it weaponized despite no official statements from Cover Corp or herself saddens me. I do not mean to berate or call out anyone, so I apologize in advance. This should be an internal case, not a public one. We do not own her, nor do we have any right to, despite the unspoken rules of idol culture. The company does. It holds all the power in deciding whether they terminate her or keep her, and from the looks of it, for the time being they have decided to let her stay onboard. As fans, it is up to us whether we want to welcome her with open arms or be distrusting of her. I, for one, am going to be sending her positive messages whenever I can.
If we go off all this, then the main points are:
  1. If she was scouted to Hololive at the time of the video, the discrepancy in time is massive, almost two generations (four if you count the auditions in March and Hololive EN) of Hololive had been announced before she even got the chance to be Mano Aloe if the video assumes the company she worked for was Hololive.
  2. The violation of privacy never happened because she spoke about information that was already leaked, not to mention based off point 1 she was never under oath to keep that kind of information secret from Hololive nor Nijisanji.
  3. At that time, she most likely did not work or was scouted by Hololive. The descriptions don't add up, nor does the evidence.
  4. We have no official confirmation that this is Aloe, nor any confirmation that Hololive considers it a blunder on her part if it is her. Until then, the video itself is basically an allegation with no evidence.
What I cannot defend entirely is that the person in the video leaked the circumstances of Chitose's retirement. That is something I would like to understand myself, and if people had known beforehand this supposed real reason for retiring. To me, that kind of information does not seem that bad, nor does it make light of anything new in the industry. I, personally, give her the benefit of the doubt, but that may not be the case with other people.
If you would like to form your own opinion about it, here is the video that has been translated into English:
https://files.catbox.moe/nj05dn.mp4
And here is the original clip that was translated:
https://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm37370617
I understand that I may not have all the details with my investigation. I understand that I do not represent anyone, or any part of the fanbase, I am the only person who represents these opinions. I understand that I may end up being wrong. If a majority of people want me to take this down or find this unhelpful, then I will take this down, as I know this is a sensitive subject. I also understand that those who want to use the video as evidence against Aloe are few, at least from what I've seen on Reddit. Seeing Aloe getting thrown under the bus with so much suspicious evidence without trying to make sense of it first is something I can't stand for, and while this doesn't mean much, I would like to contribute in some form. I ask that those who want to discuss to do so peacefully. In the end, we're all fans who just want to enjoy our idols' content. Whether you're Japanese, English, Indonesian, etc, it doesn't matter.
For those unaware, there are projects in place to send Aloe support, and there are most likely threads on this subreddit and Hololive that are trying to raise awareness. I have seen a lot of people bashing Cover Corp and Japanese fans, but I want to focus on supporting Aloe through this troubling incident. If you can, please do what you can to help her, whether you draw, send a message, or subscribe and wait for her return.
Aloe, if you happen to read this by some miracle... When you come back, I'll be one of the many people greeting you. And when I do, as I hope many will, we'll all be the ones to say "Welcome back, Aloe."
アロエちゃん、たまたま奇跡的にこれを読んでくれたら...あなたが戻ってきたら、私は多くの人に挨拶をします. そして、私がそうしたら、多くの人がそうすることを願っているように、私たちはみんなで "おかえりなさい、アロエ "と言うものになるでしょう. (Translated with DeepL)
Thank you for your time, and have a good day.
From a fan,
True_A3r0z
Edit: changed assumed to alias, as people have told me the name in question is not actually her real name.
Edit: An interesting comment crossed my path as I was reading through the comments, and it pertained to some of the sexual tweets the actress sent out on her private Twitter. I may go out and find it to validate the claims, but apparently, those tweets were made FOUR YEARS AGO. Now, I don’t know how old she is currently. But, if she was underage/a minor at the time, the tweets must now be seen in a new light because of it. I’ve seen users uncomfortable with those tweets, and unfortunately some versions of those tweets do not have dates on them, most likely from cropping or editing. I ask that no one put the source of it down in the comments, nor will I put it here either. But, if someone could confirm this, I will put it up immediately on this post as a piece of information for those reading. This may be good to inform people about, even if many do not care about her circumstances on it, it is nice to have the facts straight for when they might get twisted.
submitted by True_A3r0z to VirtualYoutubers [link] [comments]


2020.08.12 07:39 roflmao77 Talking points to use against liberandus and bullas (Long post)

I've compiled a few statistics and talking points over a few days that you guys can use whenever talking to these mlechhas.
ICM Poll: 20% of British Muslims sympathize with 7/7 bombers http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1510866/Poll-reveals-40pc-of-Muslims-want-sharia-law-in-UK.html
NOP Research: 1 in 4 British Muslims say 7/7 bombings were justified http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06 http://www.webcitation.org/5xkMGAEvY
Channel Four (2006): 31% of younger British Muslims say 7/7 bombings were justified compared to 14% of those over 45. http://www.policyexchange.org.uk/images/publications/living%20apart%20together%20-%20jan%2007.pdf
People-Press: 31% of Turks support suicide attacks against Westerners in Iraq. http://people-press.org/report/206/a-year-after-iraq-war
YNet: One third of Palestinians (32%) supported the slaughter of a Jewish family, including the children: http://pajamasmedia.com/tatle2011/04/06/32-of-palestinians-support-infanticide/ http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4053251,00.html
World Public Opinion: 83% of Egyptians approve of attacks on American troops. 26% of Indonesians approve of attacks on American troops. 26% of Pakistanis approve of attacks on American troops. 68% of Moroccans approve of attacks on American troops. 90% of Palestinians approve of attacks on American troops. 72% of Jordanians approve of attacks on American troops. 52% of Turks approve of some or most groups that attack Americans (39% oppose) A minority of Muslims disagreed entirely with terror attacks on American troops. About half of those opposed to attacking Americans were sympathetic with al-Qaeda’s attitude toward the U.S. http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/feb09/STARTII_Feb09_rpt.pdf
World Public Opinion (2009): 30% of Palestinians support attacks on American civilians working in Muslim countries. 24% support the murder of Americans on U.S. soil. Only 74% of Turks and 55% of Pakistanis disapprove of terror attacks against civilians on U.S. soil. http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/feb09/STARTII_Feb09_rpt.pdf
Pew Research (2010): 55% of Jordanians have a positive view of Hezbollah 30% of Egyptians have a positive view of Hezbollah 45% of Nigerian Muslims have a positive view of Hezbollah (26% negative) 43% of Indonesians have a positive view of Hezbollah (30% negative) http://pewglobal.org/2010/12/02/muslims-around-the-world-divided-on-hamas-and-hezbollah/
Pew Research (2010): 60% of Jordanians have a positive view of Hamas (34% negative). 49% of Egyptians have a positive view of Hamas (48% negative) 49% of Nigerian Muslims have a positive view of Hamas (25% negative) 39% of Indonesians have a positive view of Hamas (33% negative) http://pewglobal.org/2010/12/02/muslims-around-the-world-divided-on-hamas-and-hezbollah/
Pew Research (2010): 15% of Indonesians believe suicide bombings are often or sometimes justified. 34% of Nigerian Muslims believe suicide bombings are often or sometimes justified. http://pewglobal.org/2010/12/02/muslims-around-the-world-divided-on-hamas-and-hezbollah/
16% of young Muslims in Belgium state terrorism is "acceptable". http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/1275/Islam/article/detail/1619036/2013/04/22/Zestien-procent-moslimjongens-vindt-terrorisme-aanvaardbaar.dhtml
Populus Poll (2006): 12% of young Muslims in Britain (and 12% overall) believe that suicide attacks against civilians in Britain can be justified. 1 in 4 support suicide attacks against British troops. http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/2005/07/more-survey-research-from-a-british-islamist
Pew Research (2007): 26% of younger Muslims in America believe suicide bombings are justified. 35% of young Muslims in Britain believe suicide bombings are justified (24% overall). 42% of young Muslims in France believe suicide bombings are justified (35% overall). 22% of young Muslims in Germany believe suicide bombings are justified.(13% overall). 29% of young Muslims in Spain believe suicide bombings are justified.(25% overall). https://selectra.co.uk/sites/selectra.co.uk/files/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
Pew Research (2011): 8% of Muslims in America believe suicide bombings are often or sometimes justified (81% never). 28% of Egyptian Muslims believe suicide bombings are often or sometimes justified (38% never). http://www.people-press.org/2011/08/30/muslim-americans-no-signs-of-growth-in-alienation-or-support-for-extremism/
Pew Research (2007): Muslim-Americans who identify more strongly with their religion are three times more likely to feel that suicide bombings are justified https://selectra.co.uk/sites/selectra.co.uk/files/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
27% of British Muslims do not support the deportation of Islamic extremists preaching violence and hate. http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/2005/07/more-survey-research-from-a-british-islamist.html
Federation of Student Islamic Societies: About 1 in 5 Muslim students in Britain (18%) would not report a fellow Muslim planning a terror attack. http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/2005/07/more-survey-research-from-a-british-islamist
ICM Poll: 25% of British Muslims disagree that a Muslim has an obligation to report terrorists to police. http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/2005/07/more-survey-research-from-a-british-islamist
Populus Poll (2006): 16% of British Muslims believe suicide attacks against Israelis are justified. 37% believe Jews in Britain are a "legitimate target". http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/2005/07/more-survey-research-from-a-british-islamist
World Public Opinion: Majorities in Egypt (63%) and Libya (61%) supported the 9/11/2012 attacks against American embassies, including Benghazi. Original Link: http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/brunitedstatescanadara/727.php?nid=&id=&pnt=727 (Removed) (Reference in this link)
Pew Research (2013): At least 1 in 4 Muslims do not reject violence against civilians (study did not distinguish between those who believe it is partially justified and never justified). http://www.pewforum.org/uploadedFiles/Topics/Religious_Affiliation/Muslim/worlds-muslims-religion-politics-society-full-report.pdf
Pew Research (2013): 15% of Muslims in Turkey support suicide bombings (also 11% in Kosovo, 26% in Malaysia and 26% in Bangladesh). http://www.pewforum.org/uploadedFiles/Topics/Religious_Affiliation/Muslim/worlds-muslims-religion-politics-society-full-report.pdf
PCPO (2014): 89% of Palestinians support Hamas and other terrorists firing rockets at Israeli civilians. http://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/08/poll-89-of-palestinians-support-jihad-terror-attacks-on-israely
Pew Research (2013): Only 57% of Muslims worldwide disapprove of al-Qaeda. Only 51% disapprove of the Taliban. 13% support both groups and 1 in 4 refuse to say. http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/09/10/muslim-publics-share-concerns-about-extremist-groups/
BBC Radio (2015): 45% of British Muslims agree that clerics preaching violence against the West represent "mainstream Islam". http://www.comres.co.uk/polls/bbc-radio-4-today-muslim-poll/
Palestinian Center for Political Research (2015): 74% of Palestinians support Hamas terror attacks. http://www.timesofisrael.com/support-for-hamas-skyrockets-following-war-poll-shows/
Pew Research (2014): 47% of Bangladeshi Muslims says suicide bombings and violence are justified to "defend Islam". 1 in 4 believed the same in Tanzania and Egypt. 1 in 5 Muslims in the 'moderate' countries of Turkey and Malaysia. http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/07/01/concerns-about-islamic-extremism-on-the-rise-in-middle-east/
The Polling Company CSP Poll (2015): 19% of Muslim-Americans say that violence is justified in order to make Sharia the law in the United States (66% disagree). http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf
The Polling Company CSP Poll (2015): 25% of Muslim-Americans say that violence against Americans in the United States is justified as part of the "global Jihad (64% disagree). http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/150612-CSP-Polling-Company-Nationwide-Online-Survey-of-Muslims-Topline-Poll-Data.pdf
The Sun (2015: Following Nov. 2015 attacks in Paris, 1 in 4 young Muslims in Britain (and 1 in 5 overall) said they sympathize with those who fight for ISIS. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/politics/6758207/1-in-5-British-Muslims-have-sympathy-for-jihadis-in-poll.html (link removed)
ICM (2016): 2 in 3 Muslims in Britain would not report terror plot to police. http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/659913/two-in-three-British-Muslims-would-NOT-give-police-terror-tip-offs http://www.haaretz.com/world-news/europe/1.713917
East West University (Bangladesh) (2016): 1 in 10 Bangladeshi university students support terrorism. Of these, more than half (52%) are from well-off families. http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2016/11/21/study-finds-10-percent-students-in-bangladesh-universities-support-terrorismupport-terrorism" target="_blank"> http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2016/11/21/study-finds-10-percent-students-in-bangladesh-universities-support-terrorism
Policy Exchange (2016): 48% if British Muslims would not report a person "linked to terror." https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2308529/half-british-muslims-would-not-report-is-supporters/
(German) Federal Ministry for Family Affairs (2018) - 8% of Muslim students support the creation of an Islamic State via terrorism. https://voiceofeurope.com/2018/01/german-study-almost-one-in-three-muslim-students-would-fight-and-die-for-islam/ https://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article172327527/Kriminalitaetsstudie-Islamistische-Tendenzen-im-Klassenzimmer.html
Policy and Survey Research (2019) - 61% of Palestinians approve of bomb attack on Jewish family that killed teen girl. https://www.jihadwatch.org/2019/09/61-of-palestinians-approve-of-jihad-murder-of-israeli-teen
submitted by roflmao77 to Chodi [link] [comments]


2020.08.09 17:54 Osirisoid This week in MMOs - Week 32

This week in MMOS

Adventure Quest Worlds Aion Albion ArcheAge Ashes of Creation Black Desert Online Blade and Soul Bless CorePunk Crowfall Destiny 2 Dofus Dungeon Fighter Online Dungeon and Dragons Online Elder Scrolls Online EVE Online Everquest Everquest 2 Final Fantasy XI Final Fantasy XIV Gloria Victis Guild Wars 2 Maplestory Mabinogi Neverwinter Path of Exile Pantheon Rise of the Fallen Phantasy Star Online 2 Project Gorgon Realm of the Mad God Runescape Skyforge Star Trek Online Star Wars The Old Republic Star Citizen Tera Lord of the Rings Online Tibia Tree of Savior Trove Vindictus Wakfu Warframe World of Warcraft

AdventureQuest World

August 4th - The BugHunters are recruiting Looking for players to assist the QA team find bugs
August 7th - NecroTech Knight Upgrade Bonus New set available when you spend $10 or more
August 7th - Demon Queen Boss Battle Indonesian independence day event

Aion

Aion North America
August 5th - Frosty Fever Event Summer PvE event - get loot or buffs
Aion Europe
August 5th - THE GREAT DAEVANION EVENT Event - higher chance to upgrade daevanion gear
August 5th - REVENGE OF THE GRANKER KING Event - kill special mobs in gelk/ing and get loot
August 7th - WHEEL OF DESTINY Loot box promotion
August 7th - WEEKEND SPECIALS Cash shop promotion

Albion Online

August 4th - New Player Video Guides AO mod created YT ch that answers common questions
August 5th - Guild Spotlight: Victi Omnes Interview with a guild
August 5th - First Look: The Rogue Adventurer Bundle Promotion for a new cash shop outfit and mount set
August 6th - Watch the Crystal League Finals on AlbionTV Guild season is coming to an end
August 7th - The Offseason Crystal Tournament is Coming Tournament announcement

Archeage

August 6th - ArcheAge: Discounted Garden of the Gods Packages Cash shop sale on Garden of the Gods packs
August 7th - Up, Up and Away We Go! Cash shop update

Ashes of Creation

August 2nd - Ashes of Creation Coloring Book Downloadable coloring book
August 3rd - BOONS OF THE WAVEBORN Cash shop promotion

Black Desert Online

August 5th - Loyal Attendance Rewards Refreshed Daily attendance rewards have been changed
August 5th - Pearl Shop Update: Enhancement Pack Cash shop update + new cash shop outfit available
August 5th - Patch Notes - 5th August 2020 Bug fixes, events and class balancing
August 5th - Great Summer Festival Summer event

Blade & Soul

August 3rd - August Hongmoon Store Update Cash shop update

Bless Unleashed

August 4th - WEEKLY EVENT AUGUST 3 - 10 2X drop rate, and mount taming success event

Corepunk

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

Crowfall

August 7th - Crowfall Beta is Coming August 11 - Prepare for Battle! Signup now for a chance to access a closed beta test

Destiny 2

August 4th - DESTINY 2 HOTFIX 2.9.1.2 Minor bug fixes August 6th - THIS WEEK AT BUNGIE - 8/06/20 Weekly recap
August 7th - COMMUNITY FOCUS: DREXIS Interview with Drexis

Dofus

August 5th - SUMMER SALES: FINAL MARK-DOWN! Merch store discount
August 5th - ANKAMA LAUNCHER: NEW INTERFACE FOR ALL YOUR GAMES! Revamped game launcher is available
August 7th - ANKAMA LIVE: DOFUS RETRO SPECIAL EDITION Livestream and in-game event details
August 7th - THE RETURN OF GROZILLA AND GRASMERA Monster hunt event
August 7th - [CONTEST] INTERNATIONAL BOW MEOW DAY! International cat day event - screenshot contest

Dungeon Fighter Online

August 4th - DFO Content Creator Guidelines Guidelines for content creators

Dungeon and Dragons Online

August 3rd - DDO Screenshot of the Week #475 Weekly screenshot highlight

Elder Scrolls Online

August 3rd - CROWN STORE SHOWCASE—AUGUST 2020 Cash shop sale
August 6th - ANNOUNCING ESO’S NEXT-GEN SUPPORT PS5 and Xbox SX will be supported
August 6th - SAVE UP TO 50% AND PLAY FREE DURING QUAKECON AT HOME Free play week and discount on cash shop currency

EVE Online

August 4th - METALIMINAL STORMS - NEW UPDATE Spacestorms will appear at random in nullsec space
August 6th - SLICE OF LIFE Upcoming stream promotion and PvP event details
August 7th - FOUNDATION DAY EVENT IS LIVE Login, get free stuff
August 7th - NEW ABYSSAL PROVING GROUNDS EVENT PvP event details
August 7th - UPCOMING ABYSSAL PROVING GROUNDS EVENTS Upcoming PvP event details

EverQuest

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

EverQuest 2

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

Final Fantasy XI

August 3rd - Unveiling The Voracious Resurgence Special Website! Special site is up for a new storyline in the world of Vana’diel
August 5th - The Sunbreeze Festival Summer event is back
August 7th - Discount Campaign Get the game along with all the expansions for $9.99 USD
August 7th - Return home to Vana’diel campaign Returning players event
August 7th - Presenting a New Wallpaper Commemorating The Voracious Resurgence! Download a new wallpaper by Akihiro Yamada

Final Fantasy XIV

August 3rd - Watch the Latest Installment of Duty Commenced US team’s live stream.
August 3rd - FINAL FANTASY XIV Fan Kit Released! Wallpapers release for mobile and desktop
August 3rd - Letter from the Producer LIVE Part LIX Digest Released Dev talk replay available
August 5th - Changes to the FINAL FANTASY XIV Starter Edition Heavensward added to the starter edition
August 5th - Changes to A Realm Reborn Main Scenario Quest Requirements Store progression in the base game has been updated
August 6th - Patch 5.3─Reflections in Crystal Site Update Teaser site updated
August 7th - Patch 5.3 Notes (Preliminary) Patch notes for upcoming 5.3 patch

Gloria Victis

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

Guild Wars 2

August 4th - Festival of the Four Winds 2020 Begins Next Week Annual summer event returns
August 4th - Cool Off under Your Ice Reaver Cape Cash shop update
August 7th - World vs. World Weeklong Bonus Returns August 14 PvP channel event

MapleStory

August 3rd - [Updated] Nexon Merch Store is Back! Get MS merchandise on Amazon
August 5th - Cash Shop Update for August 5 Cash shop sale/new item rotation

Mabinogi

August 3rd - Community Livestream - 'P.E.T. Part 2' Update Preview Livestream that shows off the PET Part 2 update
August 4th - Art Corner - 2nd Edition Fan art highlight

Neverwinter

August 5th - 2x Underdark Campaign Currency! Double currency drop event
August 6th - Limited Time Magnificent Keyring! Lootbox promotion
August 7th - Updated Roadmap Q&A Stream - August 11, 2020 Roadmap Q&A Stream on Aug 11th

Path of Exile

August 3rd - Our 3.12 Expansion Timeline Dates for upcoming content
August 3rd - Afterlife cat pet New cash shop pet available
August 4th - Harvest fan art competition highlights Featured fan art from ongoing competition
August 4th - Undead outcast helmet skin New cash shop item
August 5th - Harvest statistics: crafts, lifeforce and the avatar of the grove Stats on the most used crafts
August 5th - Doomcrow wings New cash shop item
August 6th - Community Organized Event - 8 Day Racing Gauntlet Starts on August 22nd! Racing event
August 6th - Automation lightning armour set New cash shop outfit
August 7th - Community showcase Fan art highlight
August 7th - New Skill Effects and Super Stash Sale New cash shop cosmetics

Pantheon: Rise of the Fallen

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

Phantasy Star Online 2

August 3rd - FUN SCRATCH TICKET: AUGUST 2020 - PART 1 Lootbox promotion August 3rd - MISSION PASS: SEASON 6 Monthly achievement system rewards
August 3rd - AC SCRATCH TICKET: MAESTRO SUMMONER Lootbox promotion
August 4th - PSO2 ON STEAM: BONUS LOGIN REWARDS! Bonuses for logging in through steam
August 4th - CAMPAIGN: JOIN AN ALLIANCE! (8/5) Join an alliance, get rewards
August 4th - CHALLENGE OTHERS IN THE BATTLE ARENA! New PvP content
August 4th - LEVEL UP FASTER WITH BONUS QUESTS! Leveling event
August 4th - CAMPAIGN: WELCOME BACK TO PSO2! Returning player event
August 5th - URGENT QUESTS & CONCERTS: AUGUST 2020 - PART 1 Event
August 5th - NEW URGENT QUEST: BEACH WARS! Summer event
August 5th - BEACH WARS BEACH-WEAR! Summer cash shop promotion
August 5th - NEW REWARDS BUNDLE FOR XBOX GAME PASS ULTIMATE MEMBERS! Xbox game pass ultimate members will get rewards
August 5th - NEW EPISODE 4 LAUNCH BUNDLES! Cash shop bundles
August 5th - SUMMER IN PSO2! Summer event details
August 5th - PSO2: STEAM LAUNCH REWARDS Rewards for playing through steam
August 5th - CASINO BOOSTS & BONUSES! (8/8) Casino promotion

Project Gorgon

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

Realm of the Mad God

August 4th - AuguST ST STreak - x1.5 XP and droprates! Discord Q&A! Janus is there too. 1.5x event
August 5th - Patch Notes 1.0.1.0 - Oryx changes, Discord Nitro Boosting Rewards and more Patch notes... duh

RuneScape

August 3rd - THIS WEEK IN RUNESCAPE Weekly digest
August 7th - Double XP LIVE has begun! 2x exp event

Skyforge

August 4th - Ready Player Sun: Free Gift & 30% Off Sale! Freebies and 30% off on the cash shop
August 5th - Sale: Hall of Trophies - August 5, 2020 Trophy sale

Star Trek Online

August 3rd - Free Lower Decks Duty Officers! Get officers from the new show to join your crew
August 3rd - PC and Console Patch Notes for 8/4/20 Events, balancing and minor fixes
August 5th - PC Patch Notes for 8/6/20 bug fixes

Star Wars: The Old Republic

August 3rd - SWTOR In-Game Events for August New events

Star Citizen

August 3rd - August 3rd - This Week in Star Citizen Weekly insight
August 4th - Portfolio: Otoni Group Lore
August 4th - DISCOVER THE SPEED, POWER, AND UTILITY OF NEW & REWORKED VEHICLES Overpriced vehicles for sale
August 5th - ALPHA 3.10 FLIGHT & FIGHT Patch highlights
August 6th - Star Citizen Monthly Report: July 2020 Monthly update on development
August 7th - TRANSMISSION Inside star citizen stream PTU
August 7th - TRANSMISSION Weapons creation process
August 7th - Roadmap Roundup - August 7th, 2020 Dev decision insights

Tera: The Exiled Realm of Arborea

August 3rd - Get ready for TERA in 64-bit! 64bit tera client coming soon
August 3rd - Get Ready to Mask Up! Buy digital masks and support real doctors
August 6th - TERA Battle Arena Update: Gameplay Patch preview

The Lord of the Rings Online

August 4th - UPDATE 27.2 RELEASE NOTES Content update
August 7th - The LTRO Beacon Issue 170 Community spotlight

Tibia

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

Tree of Savior

August 3rd - Medeina's FLEX BOX Do content, get boxes, open for loot
August 3rd - Summer TOSventure Event Summer event
August 4th - Like & Comment Event: ToS Task Force is back with Second Event! Facebook event
August 4th - World Map Reorganization World map update preview
August 4th - Update Plans for the Second Half of 2020 Update plans
August 5th - New Original Sound Tracks Available - August OST Video

Trove

August 4th - Take the Lunar Plunge until August 18 Event
August 4th - Dive into Deals for Lunar Plunge until August 18 Cash shop promotion
August 7th - Luxion’s First Arrival in August – Lasts until Aug. 10 Luxion’s store refresh

Vindictus

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

Wakfu

August 5th - SUMMER SALES: FINAL MARK-DOWN! Merch store discount
August 5th - ANKAMA LAUNCHER: NEW INTERFACE FOR ALL YOUR GAMES! New game launcher
August 6th - SHELLS AND CRUSTACEANS PACK Cash shop promotion

Warframe

No new updates from August 2nd - August 8th

World of Warcraft

August 3rd - WoW Classic Ahn’Qiraj: The Scarab Lords are Rising! Join the war effort
August 4th - The Pet Battle Bonus Event Has Begun! Pet PvP event
August 4th - Jump Into This Week’s PvP Brawl: Hotmogu Weekly PvP rotation
August 4th - Explore the Temple of Ahn’Qiraj and Ruins of Ahn’Qiraj Raid content available
submitted by Osirisoid to MMORPG [link] [comments]


2020.08.07 20:06 BillerBillions Here are some (disturbing) statistics about Muslims and their views/beliefs. Feel free to save it for future use.

The following is a poll of Muslims worldwide.
Pewsearch (2013): • Only 57% of Muslims worldwide disapprove of al-Qaeda. • Only 51% disapprove of the Taliban. • 13% support both groups and 1 in 4 refuse to say. http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/09/10/muslim-publics-share-concerns-about-extremist-groups/
Wenzel Strategies (2012): • 58% of Muslim-Americans believe criticism of Islam or Muhammad is not protected free speech under the First Amendment. • 45% believe mockers of Islam should face criminal charges (38% said they should not). • 12% of Muslim-Americans believe blaspheming Islam should be punishable by death. • 43% of Muslim-Americans believe people of other faiths have no right to evangelize Muslims. • 32% of Muslims in America believe that Sharia should be the supreme law of the land. http://www.andrewbostom.org/blog/2012/10/31/sixty-percent-of-us-muslims-reject-freedom-of-expression
ICM Poll: • 40% of British Muslims want Sharia in the UK • 20% of British Muslims sympathize with 7/7 bombers http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1510866/Poll-reveals-40pc-of-Muslims-want-sharia-law-in-UK.html
Pew Research (2010): • 82% of Egyptian Muslims favor stoning adulterers • 70% of Jordanian Muslims favor stoning adulterers • 42% of Indonesian Muslims favor stoning adulterers • 82% of Pakistanis favor stoning adulterers • 56% of Nigerian Muslims favor stoning adulterers http://pewglobal.org/2010/12/02/muslims-around-the-world-divided-on-hamas-and-hezbollah/
WZB Berlin Social Science Center: • 65% of Muslims in Europe say Sharia is more important than the law of the country they live in. http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/4092/europe-islamic-fundamentalism
Pew Global (2006) • 68% of Palestinian Muslims say suicide attacks against civilians in defense of Islam are justified. • 43% of Nigerian Muslims say suicide attacks against civilians in defense of Islam are justified. • 38% of Lebanese Muslims say suicide attacks against civilians in defense of Islam are justified. • 15% of Egyptian Muslims say suicide attacks against civilians in defense of Islam are justified. http://cnsnews.com/node/53865
World Public Opinion (2009) • 61% of Egyptians approve of attacks on Americans • 32% of Indonesians approve of attacks on Americans • 41% of Pakistanis approve of attacks on Americans • 38% of Moroccans approve of attacks on Americans • 62% of Jordanians approve of some or most groups that attack Americans (21% oppose) • 42% of Turks approve of some or most groups that attack Americans (45% oppose) http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/feb09/STARTII_Feb09_rpt.pdf
NOP Research: • 62% percent of British Muslims say freedom of speech shouldn't be protected 1 in 4 British Muslims say 7/7 bombings were justified • 78% of British Muslims support punishing the publishers of Muhammad cartoons http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
People Press Surveys • 31% of Turks support suicide attacks against Westerners in Iraq. http://www.people-press.org/2004/03/16/a-year-after-iraq-wa
Belgian HLN: • 16% of young Muslims in Belgium state terrorism is "acceptable". http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/1275/Islam/article/detail/1619036/2013/04/22/Zestien-procent-moslimjongens-vindt-terrorisme-aanvaardbaar.dhtml
ICM Poll: • 25% of British Muslims disagree that a Muslim has an obligation to report terrorists to police. http://www.icmresearch.co.uk/reviews/2004/Guardian%20Muslims%20Poll%20Nov%2004/Guardian%20Muslims%20Nov04.asp
Pew Research (2007): • 26% of younger Muslims in America believe suicide bombings are justified. • 35% of young Muslims in Britain believe suicide bombings are justified (24% overall). • 42% of young Muslims in France believe suicide bombings are justified (35% overall). • 22% of young Muslims in Germany believe suicide bombings are justified.(13% overall). • 29% of young Muslims in Spain believe suicide bombings are justified.(25% overall). http://pewresearch.org/assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf#page=60
Al-Jazeera (2006) • 49.9% of Muslims polled support Osama bin Laden http://wikiislam.net/wiki/Osama_bin_Laden
Populus Poll (2006): • 16% of British Muslims believe suicide attacks against Israelis are justified. • 37% believe Jews in Britain are a "legitimate target". http://www.populuslimited.com/pdf/2006_02_07_times.pdf http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/2005/07/more-survey-research-from-a-british-islamist
GfK NOP: • 28% of British Muslims want Britain to be an Islamic state http://www.civitas.org.uk/pdf/ShariaLawOrOneLawForAll.pdf
NOP Research: • 68% of British Muslims support the arrest and prosecution of anyone who insults Islam; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
MacDonald Laurier Institute: • 62% of Muslims want Sharia in Canada (15% say make it mandatory) • 35% of Canadian Muslims would not repudiate al-Qaeda http://www.torontosun.com/2011/11/01/strong-support-for-shariah-in-canada http://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/much-good-news-and-some-worrying-results-in-new-study-of-muslim-public-opinion-in-canada/
al-Arabiya: • 36% of Arabs polled said the 9/11 attacks were morally justified; 38% disagreed; 26% Unsure http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/09/10/166274.html
Gallup: • 38.6% of Muslims believe 9/11 attacks were justified (7% "fully", 6.5% "mostly", 23.1% "partially") http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/just-like-us-really
Policy Exchange: • 1 in 4 Muslims in the UK have never heard of the Holocaust • Only 34% of British Muslims believe the Holocaust ever happened. http://www.imaginate.uk.com/MCC01_SURVEY/Site%20Download.pdf http://www.civitas.org.uk/pdf/ShariaLawOrOneLawForAll.pdf
submitted by BillerBillions to exmuslim [link] [comments]


2020.07.28 04:05 hiperaym MacOS Catalina 10.15.6 Multilanguage ❤️ Latest Update ♻️ Free Download 🔰

MacOS Catalina 10.15.6 Multilanguage ❤️ Latest Update ♻️ Free Download 🔰

macOS Catalina gives you more of everything you love about Mac. Experience three all-new media apps: Apple Music, Apple TV, and Apple Podcasts. Locate a missing Mac with the new Find My app. And now coming to Mac, your favorite iPad apps. You can even extend your desktop using iPad as a second display. Now you can take everything you do above and beyond.
Instructions :
to avoid errors like system compatibility report or error code 195 or quit unexpectedly mac applications and more follow those instructions
🧹 Clean first your mac before you patch adobe
Mac Keeper For Free 🍏 For everyone who can't patch Adobe Apps on Mac and to overcome applications errors you should first Clean your Mac Before you Install it
Download Link : https://bit.ly/2zm3IQd

Attention 😱 ! Before you start install process you should first install Adobe Flash Player 2020 ✅ Latest version to do not face any future issues also to accelerate graphics rendering.
▶️ Open the link by using Safari : https://bit.ly/2XMFxnk

Download Link :
Name : macOS.Catalina.10.15.6.19G73.dmg
Size : 7.70 GB
Files : macOS.Catalina.10.15.6.19G73.dmg [7.70 GB] : https://bit.ly/305apkg
Apple Music
Apple TV
Apple Podcasts
Syncing and backup
App Store with Apple Arcade
Mac Catalyst
Sidecar
Continuity Sketch and Markup
Accessibility
Security
Find My
Photos
Safari
Notes
Reminders
Mail
Screen Time
What’s New:
Version 10.15.6 macOS Catalina 10.15.6 introduces local news in your Today feed in Apple News and improves the security and reliability of your Mac. Apple News
This update also includes bug fixes and other improvements.
Languages: English, Arabic, Catalan, Chinese (Hong Kong), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Simplified Chinese, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, Traditional Chinese, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese
Compatibility: OS X 10.9 or later, 64-bit processor
submitted by hiperaym to u/hiperaym [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 11:54 27JJuldacket Play No Games Da-ting Si-te

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submitted by 27JJuldacket to u/27JJuldacket [link] [comments]


2020.07.26 19:32 llaverna Weekly Round-Up: July 20th - July 26th

Weekly Round-Up: July 20th - July 26th
/bangtan Weekly Round-Up

Previous thread: July 13th - July 19th

This round-up is for everything that happened in the /bangtan realm within the past week, compiled for your convenience! If you have feedback, please leave a comment or send me a PM.
The latest weekly round-up is linked on the sidebar of the subreddit. The link to the archive of past round-up posts can always be found in the wiki index.

News & Information

200720 BMI: Min Yoongi listed in credit for BLUEBERRY EYES
200721 BTS will appear on "Waktu Indonesia Belanja TV show" (there will be performance & interview). Aired by: Tokopedia play app, Indonesian TV channels, on 29/07
200721 BTS Official “We Are Performing at the iHeartRadio Music Festival in September”
200722 TIME Magazine to release a "special edition bookazine" featuring BTS: "The K-Pop Band that Conquered the World"
200723 You can now connect your ARMY BOMB Ver. 3 and 'MAP OF THE SOUL SPECIAL EDITION' with 'ON' Kinetic Manifesto Film
200724 “In the SOOP BTS ver. Ep.1” rating review now in progress
200724 “BTS Universe Story” trademark registered by Big Hit Entertainment
200723 TIME has removed the claim that other bands “paved the way” for BTS from the description of the upcoming bookazine.
200723 SUGA confirmed to feature on MAX's upcoming album on the track 'Blueberry Eyes'
200725 BTS and Halsey win #MYXAwards2020 INTERNATIONAL VIDEO OF THE YEAR for “Boy With Luv"!

Merchandise news

200720 BTS WORLD New MD Collection Release Available on July 20 @ 10:30AM KST on Netmarble Store Online Mall
200720 'BTS Memories of 2019' DVD Release Information
200722 'BTS Memories of 2019' DVD and Blu-ray are now available to preorder on Weverse Shop

Expired news

200720 BTS performance of “Your eyes tell” to air on Fuji TV’s ‘Love Music’ on July 27 from 12:30AM JST
200724 V to reportedly appear in episode of 'Summer Vacation' on tvN

Performances

200718 Your Eyes Tell - online showcase performance
200718 Lights - online showcase performance

Official Media

Type Date Title Thread
Bomb 200725 [BANGTAN BOMB] There's a Dog on the Set with BTS! Thread
Episode 200722 [EPISODE] BTS (방탄소년단) @ 2019 iHR Jingle Ball Thread
HYYH Notes 200723 Seokjin 27 June 2022 Thread
HYYH Notes 200724 Yoongi 12 May 2022 Thread
HYYH Notes 200725 Namjoon 18 July 2022 Thread
HYYH Notes 200726 Hoseok 11 May 2022 Thread
Run BTS! 200721 Run BTS! 2020 - EP.109 Thread
Run BTS! 200723 [Behind] Run! BTS - EP.109 Thread
Smeraldo 200720 Smeraldo Blog Update 5 Thread
Teaser 200720 [PREVIEW] BTS (방탄소년단) 'BTS MEMORIES OF 2019' DVD Thread
Teaser 200721 Web Limited Special Movie "BTS MUSIC JOURNEY" Part 2 Preview Thread
Teaser 200724 MAX - Blueberry Eyes (Feat SUGA of BTS) Preview Thread
Other 200720 Learn KOREAN! with BTS [EP.20] You Look Good Thread

Official SNS

Date SNS Title Thread
200720 Weverse Compilation
200720 Weibo j-hope Thread
200721 Twitter "This Is BTS" Spotify Playlist Ad at Shibuya Scramble Square in Tokyo, Japan Thread
200721 Twitter BTS Rakuten Music Ad at Shibuya Scramble Square in Tokyo, Japan Thread
200722 Weverse Compilation
200723 Weverse Compilation
200723 Weverse Namjoon Thread
200723 Twitter j-hope Thread
200724 Weverse Compilation
200725 Twitter Namjoon Thread
200726 Weverse Taehyung Thread

CF & Partnerships

200721 Baskin Robbins x BTS cake is available for pre-order until July 23
200721 LEMONA x BTS on Instagram
200721 Baskin Robbins x BTS on Instagram
200721 Tokopedia
200724 Baskin Robbins X BTS - Launching TVC (15")
200726 BTS X Tmoney Card 2020 2nd Edition COMING SOON on 6 August 2020

Articles

Date Publisher Article Thread
200721 K-media Chef Lee Yeonbok said on MBC’s Radio Star that he and Jin go sea fishing together. Thread
200721 Variety BTS, Coldplay, Migos, Miley Cyrus Among iHeartRadio Music Festival Performers: How the Show Will Go On Thread
200721 Forbes BTS Now Has The Bestselling Album Of 2020 In The United States, South Korea, Japan And Worldwide Thread
200722 Forbes MAX Talks Working With BTS’s Suga On His Solo Mixtape: ‘It Was A Beautiful And Organic Process’ Thread
200724 Rolling Stone 75 Greatest Boy Band Songs of All Time - #5 Moon, #19 Spring Day, #34 Euphoria, #56 Fake Love Thread

Other media

NOTE: Entries with 💜 have new content directly involving BTS
Type 💜 Date Title Thread
Cover 200720 Pengsoo performs to Idol (starts at 9:50) Thread
Cover 200723 Adventure Club remixed Your Eyes Tell Thread
SNS 200721 Jared Bush Thread
SNS 200721 Carlos Segundo Thread
SNS 200723 MAX Thread
SNS 200725 Kildren instagram update with video (drawing of V) Thread
Video 200724 Unboxing The BTS x Baskin Robbins Special 7 Cake And Signal Light Thread
Video 💜 200724 V appeared in an episode of "Summer Vacation" as he was facetiming Park Seojoon and Choi Wooshik Thread

Milestones

Type Date Thread
Charts/Sales 200720 BTS charted #1 on the Billboard Japan Top Album Sales Chart with 580,555 copies sold in the tracking week of 7/13-19
Charts/Sales 200720 'MAP OF THE SOUL: 7 ~ THE JOURNEY ~' debuts at #115 on this week's Billboard 200 from a partial sales week.
Charts/Sales 200721 BTS's "Your eyes tell" debuts at #1 on this week's World Digital Song Sales chart. It’s the group’s 21st #1 hit.
Charts/Sales 200722 "Your Eyes Tell" has now reached 100 #1's 🎊 on iTunes Worldwide. BTS becomes the 1ST ACT to have 2 SONGS reached 100 #1's.
Charts/Sales 200724 BTS Has Now Sold Over 1 MILLION Physical Album Sales in Japan this year alone (with 1 Korean and 1 Japanese album release)
Charts/Sales 200724 MOTS:7 ~THE JOURNEY~ is now the best-selling album from a Korean male act in Japan in HISTORY, surpassing TVXQ Best Selection 2010's overall sales
Charts/Sales 200725 'Sweet Night' by V has now reached 110 #1(s) on iTunes Worldwide
Charts/Sales 200726 'Sweet Night' by V has now reached 112 #1(s) on iTunes Worldwide
Followers 200723 BANGTANTV YouTube Channel has surpassed 33 MILLION Subscribers (First Boy Group/Duo to achieve this)
Views 200721 "MIC Drop (Steve Aoki Remix)" has now surpassed 700 million views on YouTube
Views 200722 Guinness World Records: Most viewers for a music concert live stream

BT21

200721 The brightest star among the universe of BT21, ✨ UNISTARS! ✨ The official BT21 supporters name has been decided! Let's B2GETHER 4EVER, UNISTARS! 💕 Thread
200722 [With BTS] The heated exchange of ideas was actually epic! Find out why dads are excited TOMORROW @ BT21 YouTube. Thread
200723 [With BTS] BT21 UNIVERSE 3 EP.08 - Birth of BT21 BABY Thread

Misc

200721 2020 Smeraldo Blog/BU Hints Outline
200722 Mini Korean lesson with 2! 3! lyrics

Subreddit

Rolling /bangtan Awards 2020 nomination form

Top Discussion Posts

  1. [+400] For any ARMY that found BTS during a difficult time in their life, how did they save you?
  2. [+190] I am so late...am I welcome to ARMY?
  3. [+104] When you first started becoming a fan of BTS what was the most surprising thing you learnt about the members or the whole group?
  4. [+81] In need of some reassurance that the magic of BTS is real!
  5. [+78] What concept would you like to see for a future comeback?

Weekly threads

Fanart

Here are past week's top 5 fanart posts from our sister subreddit, /heungtan!
Submitter Thread
B12BD5 Wire Love Yourself Flower
ghilbi-crossing tried to draw v from bts in this vintage style
taethor Tried drawing BTS in anime style
PurpleHellski Namjoon Pencil Sketch
CongeeDynasty My friend said I should post this code I made in Animal Crossing!
submitted by llaverna to bangtan [link] [comments]


2020.07.01 20:19 haveyouheardaboutit Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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2020.07.01 19:55 haveyouheardaboutit Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]


2020.06.24 14:45 old_richman living in the past: lp newsletter june 2000

COMET - MAY/JUNE 2000 - ISSUE 24
For people who like their travel news down loaded, not loaded down. Brought
to you by Lonely Planet (http://www.lonelyplanet.com)
***
IN THIS ISSUE
Upgrade Your Iran Guidebook - News From LP Authors on the Road
Soapbox - What's Shaking the Thorn Tree, LP's travellers' bulletin board?
The Scoop - World News For the Itchy of Foot
Compass - Cuba Guides to Win
Decadent Dunnies - The Winning Toilet Humourists
In the Spotlight - Ecotourism in Costa Rica: Size Matters
Link - Bahrain, Kuwait & Qatar Guides to Win
Homepage - What's Happening on the LP Web Site?
Press The Flesh - Chat Online to LP Author Nancy Frey
***
UPGRADE 'IRAN'
Paul Greenwood, the co-author of LP's guide to Iran and its online Upgrade,
says scoring a visa to Iran remains a matter of luck - or 'inshallah'. If
you get your foot in the door, however, you'll find Iran remarkably cheap
and safe to travel around and the people incredibly hospitable.
FACTS FOR THE VISITOR
* Visas & Documents: The good news is that visas are increasingly easy to
extend inside Iran, but the bad news is that visas to enter Iran are still
a hassle to get in the first place. The current advice is to apply in your
home country several months in advance; try again about two months later if
your first application is refused; or obtain an (extendable) transit visa
in a neighbouring country (Pakistan, Turkey or India). There has been no
letup in the letters from travellers with tales of woe, difficulty and
capriciousness when applying for visas. However, there are individual
stories of charm, ease and straightforward dealings between some travellers
and some Iranian consular staff. Annoyingly, it appears to be a matter of
luck - or inshallah.
US citizens can receive visas from the Iranian Interests Section in the
Pakistan embassy in Washington if they can prove they have prebooked
flights to/from Iran and accommodation in Iran, and have a 'good' reason to
travel there (or pretend that they do), eg an interest in Islamic
architecture, visiting family etc.
* Visa Extensions: Travellers (and the author) report successful visa
extensions in Tabriz (as much as 30 days is possible); Esfahan (only 10
days, but in 24 hours or less); Shiraz (seven to 10 days regularly given,
but 15 or more days if you ask nicely); Kerman; and Mashhad (30 days is
possible within 24 hours). Tehran is now far better, and extensions within
24 hours are currently possible.
* Money: There are now four exchange rates. The official rate of US$1 =
3000 rials, stubbornly set by the Central Bank, is meaningless; make sure
that banks don't use this rate when you change travellers cheques (if you
can) or get a cash advance with a credit card, or when you buy anything
with a credit card.
Secondly, banks that have foreign exchange facilities offer about US$1 =
5700 rials. Thirdly, the 'street rate' at the safe, legal money exchange
offices is about US$1 = 8000-8500 rials, and that is still the best way to
change money. Finally, the dodgy black market traders offer about US$1 =
8500+ rials, but the extra is not worth the risk. (The exchange rates
offered by money exchange offices, and particularly the black market
traders, will vary according to the current economic, political and social
situation in Iran.)
Many mid-range hotels will change money at about US$1 = 8000 rials. Budget
hotels are often not interested, or trustworthy; top end hotels usually
offer the bank rate of about US$1 = 5700 rials.
Travellers have had trouble converting rials into US dollars when leaving
the country, even with a bank receipt. Try at the airport, or better, don't
change too much just before leaving Iran.
* Costs: Entry fees to all government-run museums and galleries have now
been set at between 15,000 and 20,000 rials. The cost of transport, hotels
and food has increased by about 40% over prices quoted in the guidebook.
However, you get many more rials for your US dollar now, so Iran is even
cheaper than it was.
The minimum you'll need to pay for budget hotels, Iranian food and
overland, public transport is about US$10 per person per day. Unless you
thrive on discomfort, however, allow about US$30 per person per day. Add to
this the cost of internal flights (which are still ridiculously cheap),
long-distance chartered taxis and souvenirs.
* Post & Communications: Iran is very slowly getting on the Net. Several
Internet centres have opened in Tehran, and one has started up in Yazd. In
Esfahan and Shiraz, rug sellers in the bazaars have set up internet
stations. A little delta (triangle) sign indicates that computers are
available.
* Dangers & Annoyances: Despite the US and UK bombing of Iraq (and a stray
missile or two did land on Khorramshahr inside Iran), some huffing and
puffing between Iran and the Taliban in Afghanistan, and the murder of some
liberal writers, Iran remains one of the safest countries in the region.
There were several kidnappings of foreign tourists in south-east Iran in
1999, thought to be linked to the drugs trade, but their releases were
successfully negotiated.
US citizens remain unwelcome by the government (but not by the Iranian
populace in general). A bus carrying US businessmen was attacked in
mid-1998 by some radicals, although nobody was harmed. Despite this, US
visitors who can get a visa should have few problems if they keep a low
profile.
GETTING THERE & AWAY
* Air: Iran Air has commenced weekly flights to Copenhagen. Pariz Air has
commenced flights between Bandar-e Abbas and Ras al-Khaimah in the UAE,
currently on Sunday and Wednesday. Departure tax is about US$40.
* Land: Pakistan: There is now only one train per week between Zahedan and
Quetta. It leaves Zahedan at 8.30 am on Monday. The ticket office in
Zahedan is open from 7 am to 2 pm daily except Friday.
One traveller reported an unpleasant surprise when entering overland into
Iran. They were charged an extra US$174 in 'fuel tax', apparently to
compensate Iran for allowing foreigners travelling on transit visas to buy
petrol at such cheap prices, in an attempt, effectively, to charge the
equivalent of the higher petrol prices in neighbouring countries. This
doesn't apply to visitors with tourist visas.
GETTING AROUND
The government was forced to slash petrol subsidies in late 1998, so the
price of petrol nearly doubled. This naturally resulted in a similar
percentage increase in taxi and bus fares and may affect prices for other
forms of transport. However, by western standards the price of all local
transport remains incredibly cheap.
READ ON
Read the rest of Paul's handiwork online:
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/upgrades/up-ira.htm
or choose another Upgrade, from Japan to Jordan:
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/upgrades/
WHAT ARE UPGRADES, ANYWAY?
Upgrades provide a snapshot of the most important changes that have
occurred since the book was published. They only outline changes that
affect the usefulness of the book. They are written by Lonely Planet
authors and include unconfirmed news from travellers on the road.
We produce Upgrades to more than 50 best sellers and guides to countries or
regions that change rapidly. Our authors write the first Upgrade around
six months after the book is published and subsequent Upgrades every six
months after that. When the fully updated new edition of the book is
published the Upgrades cycle starts again.
Upgrades are supplements to our books designed to make each book even more
useful throughout its life. They're no substitute for our books, which are
thoroughly updated by LP authors for every edition.
***
SOAPBOX
Votes are being cast on the Thorn Tree this month for the most awful
embassy and visa chase of all time. Kazaks worldwide seem to be winning:
http://thorntree.lonelyplanet.com/thorn/repliesflat.pl?Cat=&Topic=31170&view=expanded
***
THE SCOOP
News For the Itchy of Foot
THAILAND
Severe flooding hit Central Thailand over the weekend 3-4 June, blocking
roads and leaving villages underwater. The Chanthaburi river overflowed
into farmland after heavy rains. Villages, orchards and fish farms in
Chanthaburi and Trat were inundated, and roads linking several villages
were blocked by tree trunks or branches. Many were covered by a metre of
water. Flooding reached the Khao Saming and Bo Rai districts of Trat, and
some parts of the Bo Rai district were inundated. In many of the flood
stricken districts water levels are not expected to drop in the near
future, and relief packages are being issued to remote villages.
Authorities have ordered full scale relief operations to be prepared as
concern grows over rising water levels. Travellers should be prepared for
transport disruptions in these areas, remain flexible in their plans and
consult local sources to keep up to date with developments.
INDONESIA
Indonesian police have expressed concern over the number of counterfeit
notes in circulation in Jakarta and on the island of Bali following the
arrest of 15 people this week for distributing funny money. An estimated
6.5 billion Rp of counterfeit money has been discovered in the past three
months, most of it in the form of 50,000 Rp notes. The government has
contemplated withdrawing the note (which bears the visage of disgraced
ex-President Soeharto) and re-issuing it with a new design. Meanwhile,
Indonesia's central bank has announced that there are flaws in some genuine
100,000 Rp notes, which smudge when rubbed intensely. Travellers in
possession of ink-smeared 100,000 Rp notes can exchange them at local
banks.
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE)
Abu Dhabi's first female-only shopping mall has proven to be a mild
success. As most shopping malls in the UAE are popular meeting places for
men to smoke and drink coffee in air-conditioned comfort, many women avoid
them. But not the She Zone, where more than 300 women visit each weekday
and about 1100 women visit on the weekends. In the She Zone women are not
required to wear the abaya - a long overcoat - or a veil while they are
shopping and all staff (including security guards) are female.
Scoop up news from the rest of the planet:
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/scoop/
***
COMPASS
How's Your Sense of Direction?
The Indians called the island Siguanea but when Christopher Columbus
arrived he renamed it El Evangelista. From the 16th to the 18th century it
was a hideout for pirates such as Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Thomas
Baskerville and Henry Morgan. They called it Parrot Island and their
activities inspired Robert Louis Stevenson to write 'Treasure Island'.
Since then the island has changed names a few more times and been home to
political prisoners and students from all over the world. These days its
big attractions are the unspoiled natural environment and the unhurried way
of life. Scuba divers are drawn to the entire region.
Name the island and the country to which it belongs and we'll put you in
the draw for one of 20 copies of 'Cuba' by David Stanley. Remember to
provide your name and postal address with your entry. We always pick
winners at random to give readers in all time zones an even chance. Email
us at: comet u/lonelyplanet.com.au.
Last month we described Skuon in Cambodia. The follow people picked up the
prizes: Alvin Lim, Ben Schonthal, Cheyne Keith, Eric Beadle, Graham Cullen,
Jaakko Kurki, Jane Hirons, Javier Segurotti, Kirsten Sander, Lim Lay Hoon,
Lubos Bartyzal, Martin Roberts, Michiel Jansen, Mikael Blixt, Natalie
Mei-Lynn Soh, Prentiss Riddle, Rich Garella, Tim Taylor, Zdena Plecita, Zoe
Arthur.
***
DECADENT DUNNIES
Well, we did ask. Remind us never to use the words 'describe' and 'toilet'
in the same sentence ever again. One little request for stories of bizarre,
luxurious or otherwise memorable WCs in restaurants around the globe and we
opened the floodgates to more tales of filth and frivolity than you could
poke a funny smelling stick at.
The following 20 people picked up a prize for their efforts - both literary
and lavatorial: Ariana Cynowicz, Benjamin Scheiner, Chris Azure, Claire
Mitchell, Craig Zimmerman, Dorian Moro, Egan Cheung, Gavin Mooney, Jim
Calderwood, Jodie Holckner, Kassandra Humphreys, Kim Binstead, Liz
O'Donnell, Molly de Aguiar, Paul Roach, Poppy Collyer, Richard Carr,
Stephane Coillet-Matillon, Vanessa Dwyer and Xavier Finlayson.
Ben did it down a 15 metre mine shaft in Coober Pedy in outback Australia.
Molly opened the pod bay doors onto a 2001 experience in Paris. Liz got all
Phillipe Starck on us in New York. Poppy followed the instructions and
ended up learning more than she needed to know about the diet of French
lorry drivers. Chris and Richard? We couldn't in good conscience keep their
extracts to ourselves:
From Chris Azure of Hong Kong:
'The most memorable and bizarre restaurant toilet I've ever seen is without
a doubt the toilet of Seiryuumon, a Chinese theme restaurant in Shinjuku,
Tokyo.
The restaurant itself is a very memorable one, but the toilet is really the
strangest part. As soon as you enter, you notice that coming out of one of
the walls is a huge, grotesque figure resembling some kind of eight armed
Chinese god. Two of these arms are holding a big, red-lipped smiling mouth,
which, it soon dawns on you, is the urinal.
As you go up to the urinal and begin to do your stuff, some truly bizarre
music (with German lyrics, I believe) starts up, and in time to this, the
god starts to swing the urinal from side to side. The god's head revolves
to reveal an identical head wearing makeup and making a suggestive kissing
expression at you.
As if all this isn't enough, you notice a flashing light and you look up to
discover that one of the arms holds a camera (with 'gay photo' written on
the front) that points down and flashes away at you.
I'm not sure what's more amusing: the experience itself, or the embarrassed
expressions of others emerging from the toilet after knowing what was in
there. I just hope I don't see myself some day on some Japanese hidden
camera show.'
From Richard Carr of the UK:
'We spent an unhealthy morning in a deserted branch of Nando's (somewhere
between Port Elizabeth and East London, along South Africa's southern
coast) nursing a hangover, trying not to gag at the smell of cooked meat
and taking advantage of the 'bottomless coffee' offer.
Although the whole experience retains a dreamlike quality, I am almost
positive that the deep and capacious urinals were stacked full to bursting
with ice cubes. However many times I returned it looked as though the
urinals had only just before been filled to the brim - you honestly could
not have got one more cube in! This lavish effect was entirely out of
keeping with the ambience of what was barely more than a fast food outlet.
Perhaps the dial on the ice machine had broken off whilst turned to
'maximum output'.
There is something disturbingly satisfying about creating your own ice
sculpture using nothing more than the power of hot urine and a slightly out
of kilter imagination. The deep yellows straining through the reflections
of white and black tiling was deeply fascinating. The acoustics of the
gents, exacerbated by my hangover, amplified the sounds of cracking ice so
it was as though I was peeing beneath a moving glacier.
I have since taken up ice sculpture on a semi-professional basis, albeit
using the more usual tools of the trade: a chisel, a small hammer, a
sculpture's knife and a tub of luke warm water.'
***
IN THE SPOTLIGHT: THE PRICE OF ECOTOURISM IN COSTA RICA
Rob Rachowiecki, co-author of LP's new edition of 'Costa Rica', says size
definitely matters when it comes to ecotourism development.
Costa Rica has so much to offer the wildlife enthusiast that it's small
wonder that ecotourism is growing in the country. Over 70% of foreign
travellers visit one or more nature destinations; half of these visitors
come specifically to see Costa Rica's wildlife.
During the past few years, the natural wonders of Costa Rica have been
discovered. From the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, the annual number of
visitors doubled, and now over 700,000 foreign tourists visit every year.
The tourism industry recently surpassed bananas and coffee as the nation's
biggest industry (though 1998 figures placed it second, behind electronics,
another newcomer). Prices for the traveller have risen substantially.
The financial bonanza generated by the tourist boom means that new
operations are starting up all the time - many are good, some are not. The
big word in Costa Rica is 'ecotourism' - everyone wants to jump on the
green bandwagon. There are 'ecological' car rental agencies and
'ecological' menus in restaurants! Taking advantage of Costa Rica's 'green'
image, some developers are promoting mass tourism and are building large
hotels with accompanying environmental problems. Apart from the immediate
impacts, such as cutting down vegetation, diverting or damming rivers and
driving away wildlife, there are huge secondary impacts like erosion, lack
of adequate waste treatment facilities for a huge hotel in an area away
from sewerage lines, and the building of socially, environmentally and
economically inadequate 'shanty towns' to house the maids, waiters, cooks,
cleaners, and many other employees needed. I recommend staying in smaller
hotels that have a positive attitude about the environment rather than
large, mass-tourism destinations.
At first, the growth in tourism took the nation by surprise - there was no
overall development plan, and the growth was poorly controlled. Some people
wanted to cash in on the short term, with little thought for the future.
Many developers are foreigners - they say that they are giving the local
people jobs, but locals don't want to spend their lives being waiters and
maids while watching the big money go out of the country.
Traditionally, tourism in Costa Rica has been on a small and intimate
scale. About 90% of the country's hotels are small (fewer than 50 rooms),
and the friendly local people have worked closely with tourists, to the
benefit of both. This intimacy and friendliness was a hallmark of a visit
to Costa Rica, but this is changing.
The developers of a recent project to build a 402-room hotel (the first of
a chain) on a remote Pacific beach were sued for causing environmental
damage and treating employees unfairly. Although the government agreed that
laws were broken, the Spanish-owned hotel opened in 1992 and sparked off a
spirited controversy within Costa Rica.
The big question is whether future tourism developments should continue to
focus on the traditional small-hotel, ecotourism approach, or turn to mass
tourism, with planeloads of visitors accommodated in 'mega-resorts' like
the ones in Cancun, Mexico. From the top levels of government down, the
debate has been fierce. Local and international tour operators and travel
agents, journalists, developers, airline operators, hotel owners, writers,
environmentalists and politicians have all been vocal in their support of
either ecotourism or mass tourism. Many believe that the country is too
small to handle both forms of tourism properly.
***
LINK
What do al-shaqhah, al-kerdiyah and al-khabash have in common? We've got 20
copies of LP's new guide to Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar up for grabs if you
can guess the answer we're looking for.
Email us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) and don't forget to include your name
and postal address. And if you don't score a prize, that doesn't mean you
were wrong or that we're dirty stinkin' cheats; we pick winners at random
to give readers in all time zones a fighting chance.
Last time we asked you what links a cave near Cape Mulinu'u on Samoa's
Falealupo Peninsula with Tupai Atoll, Tahiti, Black Rock (Tuoro) on
Rarotonga in the Cook Islands, Cape Reinga, New Zealand, and Nakaa's Beach
on Makin Island in Kiribati. The following people gave us the answer we
were looking for - all these places figure in local legends as gateways to
the underworld or the world of spirits: Adam Sebire, Andrea Rampone, Bert
Ungerer, Bjoern Thorsbakken, Claire Takacs, David Maude, DG Wood, Herbert
Bleyer, John Beston, Keith Bauerle, Mike Rubinstein, Paola Bava, Pete
Wenger, Phil Rich, Philipp Schott, Rosanne Tackaberry, Shelley Scott, Tara
Tuatai, Tom Toberty and Ulrich Kappler.
***
CONDENSED GUIDES GIVEAWAY
The following folks picked up a six-pack of Condensed Guides for
identifying Sennelier at 3 Quai Voltaire, 7e as the boutique art supplies
store we described in the last issue. Christy Buchanan, Claire Gould, Dan
Pleskach, Darren Hunter, Debby Heymans, Elizabeth Smithwick, Fiona Wilson,
Renate Mehr and Rob Schaab.
***
HOMEPAGE
What's Hot On the LP Web Site?
Take me to your reader. For tips, news & opinion from travellers:
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/letters/
How many cities can you fit in your Palm? Um, heaps. And we just keep
rolling out new ones - check out the latest (and try a free download) at
http://www.citysync.com/
Get small and funky with Lonely Planet's new Condensed Guides. They're
packed full of miniturised goodness.
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/prop/condgd.htm
Lonely Planet's eKno lets you phone home, email friends and fax the boss to
tell her you're quitting for Quito. http://www.ekno.lonelyplanet.com
And look at the batch of books we just took out of the oven! New titles
include: 'Bahrain, Kuwait & Qatar', 'Corfu and the Ionian Islands',
'Crete', 'Cuba', 'Cypress' (we love the letter C), Dubai, 'Florence', 'Oman
& the United Arab Emirates', 'South-West France', 'The Loire' and 'Venice',
as well as 'Diving & Snorkeling in Trinidad & Tobago', 'Diving & Snorkeling
in Chuuk Lagoon, Pohnpei & Kosrae', 'Read This First: Central & South
America', 'World Food Ireland' and 'World Food Turkey'. New editions
include: 'Amsterdam', 'Berlin', 'Chile & Easter Island', 'Costa Rica',
'East Africa', 'Fiji' and 'Tahiti & French Polynesia', as well as 'Diving &
Snorkeling in Monterey Peninsula & Northern California' the Vietnamese
phrasebook.
For a full list of LP titles and a sneek peek at what's coming soon:
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/prop/
***
PRESS THE FLESH
27 June, 3:00pm EST: Chat Online with 'Walking In Spain' Author Nancy Frey
Ask Nancy about the ins and outs (and ups and downs) of experiencing Europe
on foot: http://www.pathfinder.com/travel/TL/ or http://chat.yahoo.com/
Or snoop through the rest of LP's appointment diary for the next couple of
months: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/pro-events/
***
TALK 2 US
Is Comet the greatest thing to happen to travellers since a broke Swiss
soldier decided to hock his knife? Or is it about as useful as a backpack
full of wet matches? Let us know how we're doing:
[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
***
COMET & PLANET TALK
Lonely Planet also produces 'Planet Talk', a quarterly, printed newsletter
distributed via snail mail and bookshops. Subscriptions are free:
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***
COPYRIGHT
All material in Comet is copyright (c) 2000 Lonely Planet Publications. All
rights reserved. Although we have tried to make the information in Comet as
accurate as possible, the authors and publishers accept no responsibility
for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person using this
newsletter.
submitted by old_richman to ThornTree [link] [comments]


2020.06.22 13:21 IneffectiveOptimism On the Proto-Ngé - Fact or Fiction?

Meta: Expanding here (this is a map link very nice). 11 provinces, my excuses include that I didn't expand last week, that this post is dummy long, and that I will become small again as I begin migrating toward China next week.
Abstract: Though there has long been disagreement in archaeological anthropology as to exactly from where the Ngé peoples derive, our research has proven conclusively, through the lenses of ethnobotany, ethology, archaeological analysis, and analysis of cave art, that the precursors to the Ngé peoples were the Proto-Ngé. The Proto-Ngé resided in East Thinga'ngí, Hué, and Northern Nuvu. The emergence of their culture is reflected in the spread of agriculture from Hué, cattle and chicken domestication from Thinga'ngí, and mythology from Nuvu, as well as the spread and emergence of crops and edible and usable plants between these three regions.
Introduction:
The Proto-Ngé speaking peoples have long been a matter of controversy in the anthropological and archaeological communities worldwide. In contrast to most other controversies in these fields, that of the Proto-Ngé has mainly to do with the existence of such a people. Though many researchers have argued that there is no connection between the various archaeological sites of East Thinga'ngí1, and that the technological level of those regions should mean that there cannot have been any significant exchange between the peoples of the smaller islands and Hué2 at the time. The widely held view today is hence that some scholars formerly called the "Proto-Ngé Peoples" are in fact people who independently developed moderately similar cultures, but are otherwise different. Ethnobotanists have controversially been holding that the true homeland and wild origin of domesticated sugarcane, sago and other crops grown by these early agricultural societies cannot be understood, as the wild plants which were domesticated by these peoples were surely brought to extinction. This argument has been underpinned by the fact that many of the indigenous crops grown - which, it is held, would surely show genetic differences if compared - were all replaced by industrial crops in the early 24th century, and thus wiped out. Likewise, the differences in pottery style, cave painting styles, and tool usage is held to be so different that these peoples cannot be named Proto-Ngé, but are instead different, independently developed cultures.
The flaw of this earlier research is that it has been undertaken by researchers who generally do not follow Khangazhu'ní, nor any of the religions related to it. With the conception of the world being so different for the Khangazhu'ní and non-Khangazhu'ní, it is unsurprising that the nuances and interrelated nature of the "different" pottery, cave art, and tool usage has gone over the heads of academics hitherto. We do not attempt to dismiss earlier academics' attempts - indeed, without them, much information which we use here would not be available. What we do critique, and what this paper amends, is the flawed understanding of how the world of these neolithic peoples was observed and understood. The difficulty for non-adherents to understand the worldview of Khangazhu'ní followers is famous and well-documented, and is reflected in the low levels of conversion to the faith. Likewise, with the Proto-Ngé's worldview and mythology being the precursor to Khangazhu'ní, it is understandable that it is challenging to grasp how these early peoples viewed the world. We here highlight the importance of the Great Mother of Khangazhu'ní, the understanding of the world as it exists in being created by the stars, the understanding of the Dreamworld, the usage of dreaming to solve conflicts within the community, and the notion of the Great Crocodile, which with time will consume the sun, and a kind of Trickster-God of fate. Research in the Khangazhu'ní Dreamworld especially is severely lacking, in large part due to the 'No-Interference' doctrine of the Ngángazú government over the past two centuries. We hope our contribution may be enlightening, as the University of Zazakaḥá and the New School of Minzhúvan have recently been allowed to take in international students for the first time, and likewise publish our research in international journals. We hope our contributions may be enlightening, and lead to a revolution in the research of Ngé and Proto-Ngé culture, as well as potentially aid theologists attempting to study the faith of the peoples of Ngáng.
Analysis of Proto-Ngé Mythos vis-à-vis Khangazhu'ní and related worldviews:
The mythology of the Proto-Ngé have been held to be different due to the varieties in burial styles, the seemingly sporadic communities practicing headhunting and/or cannibalism. The confusion surrounding this is understandable, as it appears at a glance that different burial styles/cultural and martial practices should equate to a difference in culture and ethnological history. The problem is that this reflects that the researchers in these areas are unfamiliar with Ngé burials and martial practices, and as the research on this area in international journals is severely lacking, and when it is not is often flawed in some way or misunderstands Khangazhu'ní rituals, we shall clarify these misunderstandings. The differences in burial styles at different locations is tied to the ancient practice among the people of Ngáng, and a practice which is found in some nomadic Ngé communities, wherein at finding a new place to dwell the community dreams. Dreaming here is understood as both the non-Ngé "dream" which occurs only when sleeping, as well as "daydreaming" which occurs during day, and the thinking which occurs in between. Every new dwelling place must have the spirits of the local area - be they former denizens who have since perished, or the ghosts in the stones and brooks of the area - communed with, to allow the clarification of the burials which will be proper in the area. These rituals have largely fallen out of practice, or been forgotten, by the smaller sedentary communities of Ngé peoples, but the smaller Nomadic Ngé and the peoples of Ngáng have continued the practice. This is due to the fact that sedentary peoples already know the wishes of the spirits of their area, whereas the nomadic Ngé must initiate themselves into the good wishes of the spirits of an area they travel into. The peoples of modern-day Ngáng, meanwhile, have continued the practice due to the expansion of their realm over the millennia, where war has brought new lands into their realm. Hence, despite being sedentary, they have had a persistent need to undertake this ancient ritual to prevent environmental disasters.
The presence and non-presence of headhunting and/or cannibalism in different communities is related to this. War is very rarely documented among Ngé peoples - indeed, the few civil wars documented in Ngáng have all occurred due to outside influence or environmental disasters. Among non-Ngáng Ngé peoples, they have only ever picked up arms to oppose outside influence. Bearing this in mind, the presence of headhunting and cannibalism - violent acts, certainly - may appear odd. Our analysis of the examples of "headhunting", however, show that what archaeologists have presumed to be part of a martial and warlike culture, is largely not. The problem of headhunting, and attempting to use scattered burials to imagine what the cultures which buried them millennia ago were thinking when doing so, is a typical one of archaeology. There is simply not enough burials to create a full picture of these ancient cultures. Nonetheless, by comparing the ancient myths of the nomadic Haḥáng and Mbenáng with the older scriptures of the ancient Ngáng dynasties, a picture can be painted (See Appendix 3). These different ancient myths all describe the practice of 'Ancient heroes' (among the Haḥáng and Ngáng these are human, among the Mbenáng they are bats - hence concurrent with the Mbenáng practice of sacrificing bats by decapitation) 'giving up their heads' in the face of famine and drought. Comparing these different cultures, claimed to be unrelated, and noting that the Ngáng are well-documented to be descended largely from migratory peoples from East Thinga'ngí and Hué, while these are the regions where the Haḥang and Mbenáng today reside, clearly shows a lineage of origin from the supposed 'headhunting' of the Proto-Ngé people. This 'headhunting', evidently being not headhunting at all, but instead sacrifices carried out in order to appease the spirits which supposedly caused famine and drought. The mythos of heroes 'giving up their head' for the sake of spirits, crops, and/or community is also found in various scattered communities of what we name the Proto-Ngé, but who are otherwise considered largely unrelated communities, though the 'head' is variously replaced by 'spirit', 'mind', 'dreaming', 'hearing', eyes, and fingers (see Appendix 3).
As for the presence of cannibalism, we purport there are two possible hypothesis for this. Firstly is the already-touched-upon famines: monsoons and planning for them was surely difficult for the pioneering communities of the Proto-Ngé as they migrated westward, and so it is possible that cannibalism arose as a necessity in order to survive in the face of low food supplies. A second possibility is the mythos of the Great Crocodile. Though it is today well-established that the act of 'consuming the flesh of the great' to acquire their power is largely ceremonial among still-existing Ngé cultures, the position of the 'greats' being consumed being relegated to symbolic foods and breads, or plants and animals whose power can be acquired by the consumer, it is possible this act was less symbolic initially. Recent research included in this edition of New Anthropologist shows that cannibalism was more widespread in ancient East Thinga'ngí and Hué than has hitherto been thought. Thus it is seems likely that cannibalism may have been brought eastward, and that ritual cannibalism may in fact have been the norm among the Proto-Ngé, with the communities not practicing this - hitherto thought to be the majority of the ancient cultures in the area - may have been a minority. Why exactly these communities turned away from this ritual cannibalism is unclear, but it is possible that prion diseases began appearing among some, forcing them away from the practice, or that sessions of 'dreaming' and communing with spirits simply told these cultures to cease the practice.
Analysis of the 'Crop Argument':
Ethnobotanists have been holding that, while agriculture was initially developed in Hué, and spread westward through the following millennia, there is no reason to believe that this expansion of agriculture brought with it an expansion of a specific cultural group. The evidence for this argument is the morphological variations in sugarcane, kava, and ube (also known as purple yam), as documented by the early 'explorers' which came to these regions. Instead of arguing that these different crops were the same species, and had been bred into different landraces which fit with the soil contents and population needs and uses of the inhabitants here, these explorers argued that they were surely different. Unfortunately, these same explorers, after establishing trading outposts in the communities they 'discovered', proceeded to replace the native breeds with more intensive, foreign types. Beyond leading to large-scale environmental degradation, some of the most thorough soil erosion encountered in the central hemisphere, and wide-scale poverty and famine caused in large part by the former two, this also wiped out the indigenous breeds of crops. Later, academics have also held that the native wild progenitors to these indigenous crops were wiped out in the environmental devastation wreaked. While this argument makes sense, if the former one is held to be correct, genetic analysis of the crops which the people of Hué and Western Thinga'ngí still farm should be shown to be genetically different. This being shown not to be the case, academics have, instead of acknowledging a Proto-Ngé agricultural exchange, turned to revise history and claim that the environmental devastation brought by the early explorers and imported crop breeds were more devastating than hitherto imagined.
Research, financed by the United University Research Unions of Ngáng (found in this journal edition), has finally shown the conclusive evidence of this Proto-Ngé agro-exchange. By analysing the crops and foods kept in burial urns, found in the digestive system of animals and people preserved in bogs from between 1000-200 Before Mbíng, the fact of there not being different domestication events of sugarcane, kava and ube has been proven conclusively. Additionally, what has formerly been described as "burial ash", and thought by anthropologists to be ash taken from a hearth to warm the dead in death, has been shown by this genetic testing to in fact be pituri. This also shows that there was an exchange between the Proto-Ngé and people of Nuvu3. This may support the hypothesis that the 'Dreamworld' was adopted from the people of Nuvu. The Proto-Ngé are hence much more complicated in origin than has hitherto been imagined, and their seafaring abilities were more impressive than research so far has imagined. This may also mean that the introduction of chickens and various crops from East Thinga'ngí and Hué occurred much earlier than current research argues. This may also mean that, rather than macadamia, wattleseed, and other Nuvu-origin crops being brought to Ngáng following the original migration of the first Ngáng peoples, it may in fact have been brought along on this first migration.
Analysis of Cave Art and Pottery Styles - Are they truly different?:
The cave art of the different peoples in ancient East Thinga'ngí differs greatly in style, and it is widely held that this stylistic difference means that the peoples are unlikely to be closely related. A very simple argument against this is highlighting the role that the Dreamworld plays in modern-day Ngé art, and to note that this is surely not that different from what the ancient peoples of the same regions did. However, during our research, we have also been brought to a much more interesting and convincing understanding of this cave art, through analysing the figures depicted and the scenery surrounding them. Rather than simply depicting images of hunters, fishermen, and daily life for the ancient people of East Thinga'ngí, as prehistoric cave art did, our analysis shows that that what has been called 'cave art' by all hitherto researchers is in fact a highly complex proto-language, depicting metaphysical and mythological ideas, as well as manuals on how to sail and act. Indeed, the key to understanding the complex seafaring techniques of the ancient Proto-Ngé peoples who traded with Nuvu and traveled between relatively-distant islands may have been hiding under researchers' eyes this whole time, literally having been written down by the people who performed these hitherto-thought-to-be lost practices themselves.
At the famous site of Nulú Ang, a hunter stands with a spear or a harpoon in one hand, and an unidentified tool in the other. Above the hunter are dots in red positioned in clusters, and below the hunter are swirls. To the left of the hunter are a thick group of various leaves. Anthropologists have interpreted this image as showing grass in the wind, the hunter standing with a spear and some kind of animal caught, with the dots in the 'sky' being clouds. We, however, posit that the 'swirls', are in fact ocean currents. The image is meant to show a sailor the road toward Hué from Kalan4. The leaves to the left are not merely artistic, but are a biological indicator noting the wet period of the monsoon season - by mapping the ocean currents during that time, and comparing them to the 'swirls' in the image, we show that it is in fact an intricate naval map, and the dots in the sky are star clusters which slightly change position as the sailor would travel from Kalan to Hué. The fact that x-ray and carbon dating has shown that multiple 'layers' have been painted on the image shows that there was a conscious effort to make it as accurate as possible, and that it was not merely ornamental. That it is specifically the 'swirls' and 'dots' which have been corrected fits very well with our hypothesis, so the puzzling nature of the ancient Thinga'ngí's obsession over swirls and dots was not, as some have theorized, a 'complex, abstract ritualized artform', but instead a map. (For a full analysis of the twenty cave sites we covered during our research, see appendix 5).
As for pottery styles, and the differences found throughout East Thinga'ngí, we believe this is similarly based on instrumental needs and efforts, rather than being a phenomenon purely attributable to the rise of 'different cultures'. Rather than these being different cultures, we posit that they are different facets of the same, overarching Proto-Ngé culture which became hegemonic between the 25th and 18th centuries Before Mbíng. The three cultures (See Appendix 6) are shown in Green (Tumbalaska Culture), Hot Pink (Nalahué Culture) and Orange (Ula'aintuh Culture). The distinction between the three cultures holds that the Tumbalaska had taller, slightly thinner pots with handles, while the Nalahué had squat pots with intricate and wide necks, while the Ula'aintuh culture had both very large pots (it is still today unclear how, or whether at all, these were moved at the time) and small ornamental bowls. These differences have been held to 'show' that the cultures of the sites were different, and that a people termed the Proto-Ngé could not have existed, for there would have been widespread commonalities throughout the lands inhabited by such a people. But academics have overlooked some important information in doing this, as other researchers in this issue of New Anthropologist show. Firstly is the fact that both at Tumbalaska and Ula'aintuh sites bags woven from grasses and palms have been found, and that these bags are quite similar in construction. The round, long weaved bags of the Proto-Ngé is a phenomenon which till this day can be found throughout the region we call Proto-Ngé, both in indigenous fashion stores and in tourist shops. Indeed, in Ngáng these woven bags remain the dominant type of 'shopping bag'. The only sites these bags have not been found by archaeologists are those named Nalahué, but with the tropical and humid weather there it seems self-evident that these bags would break down, especially as water burials were more common in these regions than burrows and other burial styles which could preserve perishable artefacts.
Secondly is the fact of Proto-Ngé social organization. As in most neolithic farming societies, it was expected that all family members partake in working the land. Where the Proto-Ngé diverge from the norm is in what was considered child's and adult's work. Adults would weave bags and work the soil, and bring children on hunts. Children would work pottery, gather wild berries and fruits, and go hunting small animals. Fishing was nearly exclusively done by women and by elders, those with the highest status in Proto-Ngé culture. With children making the majority of pots, it is not so strange that the styles of pottery so quickly diverged - indeed, anthropologists before us have questioned whether simply dividing the pottery cultures of East Thinga'ngí, Hué and Nuvu into three is enough, or whether there were actually significantly more - up to twelve separate cultures are claimed by some to have existed. Instead of claiming that these pottery cultures were separate, we wish to highlight that in children working, their creativity was put into use. Children saw shapes in the wilds around them, and attempted to replicate them, there thus arising distinct styles. And often small cultural revolutions occurred even in areas where a supposed 'pottery style' already existed - at Nulu Áng there are three distinct 'styles' of making the same pots, all dated to roughly the same time, and the style sporadically reappearing. One of these styles is even quite similar to those found at the Larakná site in the isles north of Nuvu. This has been held to be a random convergent evolution of pottery style by the majority of scholars, but with the already-noted spread of crops throughout the region inhabited by the Proto-Ngé it is more likely that travelers or traders from the Nulu Áng site found the pottery style in Nuvu, and wished to replicate it, or instructed someone to make similar pots.
The difference in pottery styles would additionally have become developed based on environs and the form of subsistence practiced by the peoples inhabiting the different archaeological sites. While unique pots made with great artistry which are clearly purely ornamental have been found at many sites throughout Thinga'ngí, Hué and Nuvu, pots which are practical are far more common. The taller and thinner pots of the Tumbalaska fits well with the fact that their diet was rich in milk, as well as the palm wine widely made there. Fruits and meat was stored mainly in the woven grass-and-palm bags they were picked in, rather than placed into pots made for that express purpose. The Nalahué's large pots fit well with their need to store tubers and sago, and the fact that the lactose in their diet was mainly acquired from trading with the islanders, cows only being documented on mainland Hué in the late 20th century Before Mbíng. The Ula'aintuh's large pots are consistent with having a diet made up largely of cereals in the form of wattleseed, while the smaller pots were used to keep pituri, fruits, and fermented fruit-punches which were consumed during ceremonies. An important factor throughout the areas we claim were inhabited by the Proto-Ngé is also the fact that most pots are too thick to be very useful in daily use. We are far from the first to note that it is likely that wooden bowls, bottles and glasses were more common in day-to-day use than pots. The highly perishable nature of these, and the fact that they would need to be replaced more often means it makes sense that wooden bowls and vases have only rarely been found at archaeological sites.
Conclusion:
The Proto-Ngé were one culture, and while having regional variations, it became one culturo-linguistic and religious group by the 18th Century Before Mbíng. The Proto-Ngé were the precursors to the modern-day Ngé peoples. Their society was largely maritime, and while not discovering metallurgy nonetheless developed an intricate network of trade and agriculture, as well as complex cultural and mythological customs, which ultimately were the precursors to the modern-day faith of Khangazhu'ní. We propose that the Proto-Ngé in 2000 Before Mbíng were spread throughout Thinga'ngí, Hué, and Nuvu. This extent is consistent with the spread of domesticate crops and animals.
Recommendations for Future Research:
Future research can be done into how these ancient seagoers sailed and traveled. Current research indicates that the Proto-Ngé merely used dugout outrigger canoes with sails to travel around, but it is still unclear why they would choose to travel these far distances. Attempting to map Khangazhu'ní and other Ngé Songline customs alongside these travels and art along the paths traveled by these ancient peoples may be useful in gaining an insight into these customs. The significance of opals among these ancient peoples is additionally an area which needs more research, particularly as recent analysis have shown that the hundred or so still-existing Rainstones in Ngáng all originate from Nuvu.
Acknowledgements:
We would like to extend our thanks to the government of Ngáng, and especially to the Ministry of Truth for financing this research, as well as to the faculties at the University of Zazakaḥá and the New School of Minzhúvan. We would also like to extend our thanks to the editors of this issue of New Anthropologist for help in clarifying the aspects of Khangazhu'ní worldview which needed clarifying. As always, no mistakes made here are attributable to the authors, but all must be placed upon the shoulders of the Rainbow Demons of the Sky, whose obscure and strange influences can never be avoided - cursed be their name!

1Area where I'm claimed, around Timor, Thinga'ngí refers roughly to the various IRL Indonesian islands to the east of Bali.
2Hué refers to New Guinea/Papua
3Nuvu= Torres Strait + Northern Australia.
4Timor
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2020.06.17 20:36 owaiszaheer The Princely Kingdom

The Princely Kingdom

Dissidents; Embargo; Nuclear Weapons; Yemen
Current congressional debates on Saudi Arabia exhibit great antipathy towards Riyadh, a US ally that was once immune from most public criticism . The five bills reviewed for this note identify four broad points of contention that persist between Washington and the Kingdom:

  1. Dissidents: the murder of Jamal Khashoggi by Saudi operatives in Istanbul caused revulsion across Congress. Growing evidence of sophisticated Saudi operations targeting dissidents, and other opponents have also elevated concerns. Saudi agents involved with the Khashoggi killing remain sanctionedunder US Magnitsky laws.
  2. Energy and defense: Saudi influence on energy markets remains potent, and its ability to “swing” its production has put pressure on US shale oil output . Calls for linking energy to security matters have been made by some Republicans.
  3. Nuclear: the construction of Saudi Arabia’s first nuclear reactor has sparked Congressional anxiety over potential nuclear proliferation. Riyadh, unlike the UAE, has refused to accede to US demands for intrusive inspections.
  4. Yemen: the brutal war has not achieved Saudi objectives, and is synonymous with the US weapon systems that have inflicted massive civilian casualties. The Houthis remain entrenched in their positions, while the Saudi led coalition is under constant threat of collapse.

Bill Trajectory

Although the proposed bills do not appear to be under active consideration, Saudi Arabia is unlikely to remain a dormant issue. As recently as March, there were rumours of an aborted coup attempt that had triggered another purge of those deemed insufficiently loyal to the Crown Prince, Muhammad bin Salman (MBS).
On the other hand, the Saudi ability to provide financial liquidity to distressed Western capital markets remains potent, if diminished. Just its vast purchases of weapons from the United States, which in 2019 stood at 61.9 bn USD, have made it one of the world’s leading consumers of US armaments.
This unique financial capacity has long provided Riyadh a shield against aggressive Congressional scrutiny. Given the crippling impact of the global pandemic on energy markets, the Saudis may be unable to rely on their traditional tactics of financing away US critique.

Background: Clan Politics

The meteoric rise of MBS, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom, is without precedent in Saudi Arabia. It has been accompanied with a purge of senior figures but also some significant, though limited, social reforms. A new, aggressive foreign policy has also been pursued by MBS. These actions have seen sustained criticism on Capitol Hill, where the story of how the prince acquired his other nickname, Abu Rasasa (the “father of the bullet”), is well known.
An early sign of MBS’s ambition was his detention of major Saudi business figures, as well as senior family members at the Ritz Carlton in Riyadh. Most were released after agreeing to pay undisclosed sums to the government. Reportedly, MBS’s own mother has fallen victim to his policy of detention:
Other members of the royal family had also noticed the apparent disappearance of MBS’s mother. Around the time that Salman became king, she had stopped showing up at family weddings, funerals, and holiday celebrations, leading them to conclude that her son had locked her up somewhere. But, like the Americans, they didn’t know why. Excerpt From: Ben Hubbard. “MBS: The Rise to Power of Mohammed Bin Salman.”
The Crown Prince’s bias in favour of aggressive policies has made some members of Congress question the long term viability of his rule.

Dissidents

Saudi Arabia once relied heavily on its financial resources to purchase the compliance and silence of dissidents. It now has agents who are able to deploy more sophisticated means. While the case of the murdered journalist Jamal Khasoggi in Istanbul is well known, the Kingdom has undertaken other actions as well, such as infiltrating Twitter to target North America based Saudi dissidents:
The Justice Department accused the two men of using their positions and their access to Twitter’s internal systems to aid Saudi Arabia by obtaining information on American citizens and Saudi dissidents who opposed the policies of the kingdom and its leaders.
Related to this is Congressional concern that the Saudis continue to aid and abet the escape of Saudi citizens who have been accused of serious crimes in the United States.

Energy and Defense

In March, Saudi Arabia and Russia commenced a ruinous price war, which greatly exacerbated the turmoil in energy markets. US shale oil producers were particularly badly hit by the Saudi moves, leading a group of senators to explicitly draw a link between arms sales and energy policy. In a letter to the Secretary of State this Republican grouping declared:
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia must change course. The American people grow weary of providing for the defense of Saudi Arabia – with military financing and weapons sales, logistics and intelligence-sharing, and the deployment of our men and women in uniform. This relationship will be difficult to preserve if turmoil and hardship continue to be intentionally inflicted on the small- and medium-sized American companies that are the heart of our nation’s energy abundance. By taking advantage of a confusing situation and desperate time, the Kingdom risks its bilateral relationship with the United States.

Nuclear

Suspicions have grown in Congress that Saudi Arabia is harboring nuclear ambitions of its own in order to counter Iran. In contrast, the UAE, or little Sparta, concluded a special agreement with the United States, which placed the UAE’s reactors under advanced supervision so that they cannot be used to research weapon production.
Current Congressional policy is to seek a similar concession from Riyadh. The first Saudi nuclear reactor is fast nearing completion. Future US participation in this sector will be contingent on a so-called “123 agreement” between the United States and Saudi Arabia, which is US legal requirement:
Section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (AEA, 22 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), requires nuclear cooperation agreements for significant nuclear cooperation with foreign governments. Such cooperation includes the transfer of certain U.S.-origin nuclear material subject to licensing for commercial, medical, and industrial purposes; the export of reactors and critical reactor components; and other commodities under Nuclear Regulatory Commission export licensing authority.

Yemen

The war in Yemen has ground to a stalemate. Congress’ stand has generally been to disapprove of the war as well as the logistical support the United States has provided Saudi Arabia. Because of the global pandemic, the war in Yemen has receded from view. The prospect of sanctions against Saudi’s Yemeni war remain low given the value of Saudi weapons contracts.

Acts Reviewed

ESCAPE of Saudi Nationals Act

The full form of this Senate bill is “Examining Saudi Consular Activities Promoting Extraction (ESCAPE) Act” . The bill recalls a variety of instances wherein Saudi nationals have been facilitated by Saudi diplomatic posts to return to the Kingdom.
In order to pressurize such conduct, it proposes amending the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 by adding the following language:
Real property in the United States may not be maintained by any foreign mission of a foreign country if the Secretary of State, after consultation with the Attorney General, determines that such foreign mission has aided in the removal of a citizen or national of its country from the United States with the effect of evading the prosecution of such citizen or national for 1 or more criminal offenses committed in the United States.
Note: the US has, in turn, also facilitated the evacuation of non-diplomatic personnel accused of crimes in other countries. See for example the Raymond Davis case involving a CIA spy in Pakistan, or the killing of Harry Dunn in the UK. See also the Saudi Fugitive Declassification Act of 2019.

Protection of Saudi Dissidents Act of 2019

This bill proposes significant arms sales restrictions on the Saudis:
…the President may not transfer, sell, or authorize a license for export of any defense articles or services, any design and construction services, or any major defense equipment under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.), regardless of the amount of such articles, services, or equipment, to an intelligence, internal security, or law enforcement agency or instrumentality of the Government of Saudi Arabia, or to any person acting as an agent of or on behalf of such agency or instrumentality.
It explicitly links further arms sales to progress on a number of human rights related issues including:
  1. An independent review of the murder of the journalist Jamal Khashoggi;
  2. The release of any “individual who is a journalist, blogger, human rights defender, advocate for religious freedom, or civil society activist detained by the Government of Saudi Arabia”;
  3. Cessation of harassment of individuals “for blasphemy and apostasy”;
  4. An end to the “torture of detainees”; and
  5. The disbanding of units of Saudi Arabia’s “intelligence or security apparatus dedicated to the forced repatriation, silencing, or killing of dissidents in other countries”.
Given the sheer value and importance of Saudi Arms acquisitions, this is unlikely to gain much traction. See also the continuing controversy engulfing the Secretary of State Mike Pompeo with regards to his firing of a US State Department official for his investigation of previous Saudi arms transfers.

Saudi Arabia Accountability and Yemen Act of 2019

Introduced last year, this bill would prohibit the following activities / impose sanctions on:
  • Arms transfers to Saudi Arabia.
  • In-flight refueling of Saudi coalition aircraft operating in Yemen.
  • Imposition of sanctions with respect to persons hindering humanitarian access and threatening the peace or stability of Yemen.
  • Imposition of sanctions with respect to persons supporting the Houthis in Yemen.
See also: Saudi Arabia Diplomatic Review Act of 2019

Saudi Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 2019

This proposed act would require that:
any provision of financing assistance by the Export-Import Bank of the United States to Saudi Arabia for the import of United States nuclear technology, equipment, fuel, materials, or goods or services should be conditioned on the commitment of the Government of Saudi Arabia to renounce uranium enrichment and reprocessing on its territory and its adoption and implementation of an Additional Protocol to its Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency as a way to advance United States nonproliferation and nuclear cooperation objectives in the region

Strained Partnership Act

This bill has a simple purpose, to reduce US military assets in Saudi Arabia.
All United States Armed Forces and equipment, including Patriot missile batteries and the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system, shall be removed from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.
Separately, some military assets have already been slated for withdrawal as of May.

Sources and Methods

Saudi Sovereign Wealth Fund’s Buying Spree

The Public Investment Fund, the Saudi vehicle steered by Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman, has acquired a 5.7 per cent stake in the Los Angeles-based entertainment group, according to a US regulatory filing. Shares in Live Nation climbed 6.7 per cent to $40.78 just before midday in New York, giving it a market value of $8.8bn. In recent weeks the PIF has snapped up stakes in beleaguered cruise line operator Carnival and European oil companies including Royal Dutch Shell and Total, whose shares have been hit by the collapse in crude prices. It also agreed a £300m deal to buy a majority stake in English Premier League football club Newcastle United. The Saudi government has looked to open up the country’s entertainment sector and create a budding domestic film and entertainment industry.

The Ailing Economy

The Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority’s net foreign assets dropped by 100bn riyals ($27bn) in March to SAR465bn, the lowest levels since 2011 and the fastest decline in two decades, it said on Wednesday. The rapid fall illustrates the magnitude of the oil producer’s challenge in funding a package of coronavirus stimulus measures to protect the economy, while crude is trading at rock bottom prices. Brent crude dropped to below $20 a barrel this week for this first time in 18 years. The government has already had to pare back spending, trimming its 2020 budget by 5 per cent, and has said it is prepared to raise its debt ceiling from 30 per cent of gross domestic product to 50 per cent. The kingdom has raised an estimated $12bn on international debt markets this year. Low oil prices are already having an impact. The finance ministry on Wednesday reported a first-quarter budget deficit of $9bn, compared to a surplus of $7.4bn in the same period last year. Revenues in the first quarter were down by 22 per cent year-on-year.

The Hajj’s COVID Disruption

The disruption of the hajj and of the travel of Muslims to and from Saudi Arabia imperil long-standing planks of Saudi foreign policy. Pilgrimages and person-to-person exchanges in the kingdom have been key to the Saudi proselytization efforts across three continents. The ostracized Indonesian founding father Mohammad Natsir, for example, was a frequent visitor to Saudi Arabia, won the favor of King Faisal, and in 1967 started the Indonesian Islamic Propagation Council, which became a conduit for Saudi funds. The council endowed a boarding school in Central Java, where several of the perpetrators of the 2002 Bali bombings studied. Likewise, a young Nigerian scholar named Abubakar Gumi, who worked in Jeddah as a hajj officer, was entrusted in 1965 with channeling King Faisal’s funds into Nigeria, where he promptly embarked on a vigorous anti-Sufi campaign. Gumi went on pilgrimage to Mecca every year between 1955 and 1965, and it was there that he recruited Nigerian collaborators such as Khulod, whom he personally tapped to run MWL in Abuja.

Saudi’s Nuclear Reactor

While Saudi Arabia has been open about its ambitions to generate nuclear power, less is known about the kinds of monitoring the kingdom intends to put in place. President Donald Trump’s administration sent a letter to Saudi Arabia last year setting requirements to access U.S. atomic technology. The baseline for any agreement is tougher IAEA inspections. “Saudi Arabia is aware of what their obligations are,” IAEA Director General Rafael Mariano Grossi said Feb. 5 in Washington after meeting with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo. Grossi dismissed Saudi suggestions that it would acquire nuclear weapons if Iran did. The situation hasn’t changed since Grossi spoke, an IAEA spokesperson said by email, adding that other countries have completed the transition to stricter monitoring after scaling up nuclear programs. IAEA inspectors who account for gram-levels of uranium worldwide verify the designs of facilities to ensure that nuclear material is contained within and can’t be smuggled out via trap doors or hidden tunnels, said Robert Kelley, a former IAEA director who led inspections in Iraq, Libya and South Africa. “They’re going to have to work with the IAEA forever if they want to move toward nuclear power and this would be the time to establish that relationship,” Kelley, a nuclear engineer, said of Saudi Arabia.

Amazon VS. Saudi

On January 22nd UN investigators alleged that the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia may have hacked the mobile phone of Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, an e-commerce giant. According to a forensic report prepared for Mr Bezos, the world’s richest man received an infected video file on WhatsApp, a messaging service, sent from a number used by the crown prince. It opened a back door on the billionaire’s phone, which was soon used to steal large amounts of data—though the un did not say exactly what, or how it was used. It called for an “immediate investigation”. The Saudi embassy in Washington, dc, said the accusations were “absurd”. Surreal as they may seem, though, the allegations make sense. Last year the National Enquirer, an American tabloid, published an exposé about an extramarital affair between Mr Bezos and a television presenter. He, in turn, accused the newspaper of trying to blackmail him with leaked photos. An investigator working for Mr Bezos later accused the Saudi government of being behind the leaks. The Enquirer’s parent company, American Media llc, has a relationship with the Saudis. In 2018 it published a glossy propaganda magazine extolling the virtues of Prince Muhammad. On the face of it, the Saudis had reason to go after Mr Bezos. He owns the Washington Post, which counted among its contributors Jamal Khashoggi, a Saudi journalist whose critical columns angered Prince Muhammad. In October 2018 Khashoggi was murdered and dismembered inside the kingdom’s consulate in Istanbul. The CIA concluded that the prince probably ordered the killing (he denies this).

Former Saudi Intelligence Officer Targeted

Some former senior U.S. and British spymasters are feeling that shock to the conscience now, as they watch the plight of Saad Aljabri, a former top Saudi intelligence officer who helped build the kingdom’s counterterrorism capability — and in the process provided what intelligence officials describe as invaluable help to the West. Aljabri’s son Khalid, a cardiologist who lives with his father in Toronto, said during interviews that two of his younger siblings — Omar, 21, and Sarah, 20 — were seized and imprisoned in mid-March by the regime of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, who is often referred to as MBS, as leverage to force their father to return to the kingdom from exile in Canada.

The Saudi Lie

MBS’s paid defenders have a line on detention: ‘Prison in Saudi Arabia is quite benign.’ Those were the words used during a televised debate by Ali Shihabi, the director of the Arabia Foundation, a Saudi-funded Washington think-tank founded in 2017 that is effectively a PR firm in all but name. By coincidence, Shihabi’s interlocutor on that occasion was Jamal Khashoggi. After his fellow panelist’s murder Shihabi employed another impressive line of defence, tweeting: ‘Leaders and governments make mistakes, sometimes horrible ones ... But one horrible murder cannot and will not be allowed to put the country further at risk.’
submitted by owaiszaheer to hillbill [link] [comments]


2020.06.14 15:55 SteliosRotas What actually happened with the Anime Batch lead and Discord stuff

Hello!
I'm the owner of the Finding Saki Sanobashi Discord server. I'm saying that because I want to clear out some stuff about the new lead that was posted here on Reddit. While the things people say about the lead are true, but they don't tell the full story. Every time I see users asking what is this lead or if there is a Discord server. So with this post, I want to explain everything.
On May 24-26 (I don't remember the exact date) I searched on Google "go for a punch anime dl site:drive.google.com". That search meant that it will search on public Google Drive files with the name "go for a punch dl". When hitting enter, only one result came up. The title of the result was "S1+S2+S3 Sub Indo Batch Download". The result didn't have a description and it was a 404 page. So we thought that it was deleted. You might think that the Season 1, 2 and 3 isn't Saki Sanobashi, because Saki Sanobashi was an OVA (probably). We guessed that the people who uploaded this file, might have uploaded Saki Sanobashi on the same folder or something like that and it ended up showing us that link.
After a while, we found about an Indonesian anime subtitling group named "Batch Indo". Later, someone said that they don't have to do with the anime. Then, とびたQ, a researcher on the Discord server, contacted her friend, shez. Shez, who is probably Indonesian (but speaks Indonesian, I don't know, I haven't asked), said : "Indo Batch is like the way we call a full season or a complete season of a series in one folder or zip files. They usually come with [Indonesian] subtitles though." That meant there were more Batch groups.
With that in mind, I went ahead and searched for Batch groups who were active between 2000-2011 and got their emails. After I collected those emails, we contacted shez and brought him to the Discord server. We asked him if he can translate the email that we were going to send to those Batch groups in Indonesian. Shez agreed and translated this English text to Indonesian:
Hello!
I have heard that you did Indonesian subtitles. Can you help me with something? So, around the time you were making Indonesian subtitles, there was an anime that was called something like: "Go For A Punch". The anime goes like this: "9 girls are trapped in a bathroom with no way of getting out. They have a philosophical debate of never getting out. After a few days, they all go crazy and kill themselves. They commit suicide by smashing their heads to the floor, by scratching their necks, or even by drowning in the sink. A girl with almost white hair drowned the other girls because she couldn't do it." This is the anime. It is a little bit bad, but we can't find it. Did you remember an anime like this? Or did you made a subtitle for that anime?
Thanks a lot!
Bye!
Shez was nice and gave us the translated text and I sent the Indonesian text to every email that I had gathered. After a few days with no response, I stopped checking on my email inbox and started searching for other leads.
One day, I decided to check on the mail and one of the groups responded. A group named "Anime Batch" responded. The email wrote "you still alive? I got it" when you translated it through Google. I was shocked and shared it with everyone in the Discord. At first, I thought that I had emailed a troll. But, when I searched their email on Google, I noticed that it was the actual group. Apparently, they have been subtitling anime from 1995. 15 years. Why would a 15-year-old group troll us? Of course, we think that they referred to another anime, but I gave them the full description of Saki Sanobashi. When contacting shez about it, he said that the correct translation of the email was: "Are you still active? I already got it."
They replied to us after 9 days, that's why I think he/she asked if we are still active. So, we replied to their email asking if they can send it to us. I send the email using Google Translate, but if they don't respond in the following 9 days, I will ask shez if she can make a translation of our email.
Now, a user uploaded the lead on Reddit without any context and everyone thought it was fake. I think she did that because we don't share every lead we find on Reddit. In May, I and another person made some evidence against SakiSanobashiOP after the original interview. But, we made a mistake. We shared the evidence in the general chat, which anyone can access. So, we decided to do another small interview with SakiSanbashiOP again. We asked him the question and he responded with a pretty fake story. So, we thought that he used an alt account and saw our evidence. So, we decided that we must keep evidence against SakiSanobashiOP out from the public eye. But, for this lead, we didn't care if someone uploaded it on Reddit. So, probably, the person who uploaded the original post thought that, because we kept the evidence aginst SakiSanobashiOP in private, that every lead should be private. That's not true. If you are not sure if you are supposed to say something, just ask.
Now for the Discord. I have seen multiple times people asking about the Discord server. The Finding Saki Sanobashi Discord Server. People think that the Discord servers for Saki Sanobashi have been deleted. Of course, that isn't true. I created the Finding Saki Sanobashi Discord Server back in January. I have made an invite in my older posts, there is an invite in Disboard and Media Adaptation has the invite in the desription of his weekly search videos.
https://discord.gg/TwNvpNN
The Saki Sanobashi Discord server is a serious server to find Saki Sanobashi. Uploading memes and fanart is not allowed and we are trying to get leads. To keep the Server troll-free, you must make an application in order to get in the actual server. If you want the researcher role, you must apply some research you have done on the Saki Sanobashi search. But, if you want to just watch the progress, you can get the Interested role. When you are interested, you can watch the search, but you can't talk.
submitted by SteliosRotas to SakiSanobashi [link] [comments]


2020.06.06 10:04 arpaofficial ARPA Monthly Report May Progress Review

ARPA Monthly Report May Progress Review
Dear ARPA community,
To make sure that fellows of ARPA community are well informed of the latest developments of the team, we will update the project dynamics and progress in ARPA community in our monthly report. Thank you all for your support!
This is May in the rearview. Enjoy!

01 ARPA Development Dynamics & Technology Progress

Pooled Mining on Mainnet
  1. Formally launched pooled mining on mainnet
  2. Fixed known bugs in the frontend of mainnet
  3. Completed unit test, integrated test, and user acceptance test in the backend of MPC pooled mining
  4. Optimized the reward distribution logic of MPC pooled mining and fixed minor backend bugs
MPC
  1. Smart contract development ramp-up
  2. Conducted internaltraining on smart contract development
  3. Compiled the architecture document for the secure MPC platform
  4. Compiled the API document for the secure MPC platform
DeFi
  1. Refined the DeFi architectural design down to different components
  2. Determined the backend technical stack, including the serverless framework and language selection
  3. Planned the protocol-layer design and development process
  4. Finalized the iteration plan for the frontend- backend development and test
  5. Explored the development toolings
  6. Completed DeFi formula definition and logic document compilation
  7. Performed initial design of DeFi governance mode
  8. Optimized DeFi Dapp UX/UI design
  9. Selected the interaction method between smart contract and Web3
  10. Debugged smart contract and selected the test solution
Privacy Computing
  1. Compared applications and overhead of privacy computing technologies
  2. Compared security of trusted execution environment solutions
  3. Surveyed the trusted establishment protocol on non-interactive zero-knowledge proof
Selection and Architecture Planning of DeFi Backend Technical Stacks

02 Community, Marketing & Listings

ARPA Mainnet Mining Pool Launched
ARPA’s pre-alpha mainnet mining pool is now live and accepting staking. Users can choose a mining pool, stake their ARPA tokens and start earning computation rewards.
ARPA mainnet mining pool is designed to lower the threshold for users to participate in the ARPA mainnet secure multi-party computation. By staking no less than 50,000 ARPA to the designated mining pool, users can participate in multi-party computation(MPC). With successful completion of each task, users will receive mainnet mining reward.
Mining pool Live time: May 8, 2020
Annualized Mining Reward: 15% ~25%
Minimum Staking Amount: 50,000 ARPA
Staking Cap per pool: 3,000,000 ARPA
Current total cap: 15,000,000 ARPA
Mining pool: mainnet.arpachain.io
https://preview.redd.it/3suf8ek9y8351.jpg?width=1334&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fd7e084cc1b1f8282b693fc77a7305f0b64fd36e
ARPA Celebrated Second Anniversary
ARPA team turned 2 years old this past month. ARPA community had a week-long celebration for its second-anniversary.
https://preview.redd.it/6wemozldy8351.jpg?width=1500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=889ae7d24d50470d6de7cd9ef7f02b6cee0c14fa
Birthday Wishes from Around the World
Click the URL to read the letter from ARPA’s co-founder & CEO:
On ARPA’s 2nd Anniversary — A Letter from CEO
Dear friends and partners,medium.com
ARPA Listed on Bithumb, the Largest Exchange in Korea
Korea’s largest exchange, Bithumb, listed ARPA on its main trading platform and its global site, Bithumb Global.
https://preview.redd.it/tukus4ify8351.jpg?width=960&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f898a6ac17aa1e62ea0c127d0421752052f1fbdb
The listing on Bithumb Korea marks yet another milestone that ARPA has achieved in not only Korean market, but also in regulated exchanges listings.
Till this date, ARPA has been listed on Korea’s regulated exchanges Coinone and Hanbitco, as well as Vietnam’s Bvnex.
Official announcement of Bithumb:
Bithumb 카페
글로벌 대표 가상자산 거래소 빗썸입니다. 빗썸이 알파체인(ARPA)을 신규 상장할 예정입니다. 알파체인은 다자간 연산 기술을 통해 개인 정보를 보호하고 데이터를 효율적으로 관리, 공유하기 위해 구축된 블록체인…cafe.bithumb.com
ARPA was Invited to Block 101 by Binance
On May 6, Felix Xu, Co-founder & CEO of ARPA, was invited to Block 101 by Binance. He had a dialog with Sisi from Binance and shared his opinion on crypto and privacy-preserving computation. Around 50,000 audience watched the program online throughout the livestream.
https://preview.redd.it/kfx4lcuiy8351.png?width=1709&format=png&auto=webp&s=17380db2fe1f0c8d7d9e2f7d39f955f33b2f525c
ARPA was interviewed by MTN of Korea
Felix Xu, Co-founder & CEO of ARPA, was interviewed by Money Today Network (MTN), one of the three major financial television stations of Korea. The interview was played in the MTN X-File program on April 10.
MTN is a renowned financial television station in Korea, covering more than 30 million users in Korea and owning 300 thousand subscribers on YouTube.
Felix introduced the data privacy problems in financial and medical fields, the privacy protection policies launched by different countries, and ARPA’s MPC application in the preceding fields. The interview also involved how to use MPC to track patients’ traces and help control spread of COVID-19 while protecting patients’ privacy. As a leading privacy computing enterprise in the industry, ARPA makes all efforts to push landing of secure MPC applications and works with several large-sized enterprises in conceptual verification.
Click to view the ARPA interview video, starting at 4 minutes and 30 seconds:
https://youtu.be/KkuBMUNOJWc
ARPA and MXC Celebrated Anniversary Together and Offered ETF Awards to New Users
On May 14, ARPA and MXC celebrated their anniversary together and offered ETF awards up to 200 USDT, with a total amount of 40,000 USD. All the first 200 seats can get the award.
ARPA x JD Digital AMA
On May 22, Co-founder and CEO Felix Xu of ARPA was invited to livestream withJD Digital, a subsidiary of JD.com, which is one of the largest e-commerce platform in China. He introduced the current phase of the data industry, privacy-preservingcomputation technology, and ARPA’ and JD Digital’s joint effort in the financial data field.
https://preview.redd.it/g9okrt7ny8351.png?width=1800&format=png&auto=webp&s=a97e165317074987dce503252bc388b94277853b
ARPA Invited to Borderless Online Summit
On May 27, Co-founder and CEO Felix Xu of ARPA was invited to Borderless Online Summit and shared his view on the topic of “Has the Moment Come for Privacy-preserving Computation?”.
https://preview.redd.it/zfqjrzwoy8351.jpg?width=1000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=83f1bb808581052fa62d4b478b0a869e9683b9c9
Felix shared his opinions on the current situation of the data industry, privacy computing technology, and the implementation scenarios of ARPA’s MPC. He also pointed out that, risk control and blacklist sharing of financial institutions have an urgent need for privacy-preserving computation and will therefore have an organic adoption for MPC.
ARPA Foundation Burnt 10mil ARPA Tokens
On May 27, ARPA foundation conducted a new round of monthly token burn. 10,000,000 ARPA tokens were burnt from its reserve. This is worth about $110,000 at the time of burn. The amount burnt has been sent to the black hole address shown below.
Black hole address:
0x168115cf806009f8984f47c90033e9a9705b4f65
TXID:
0x1a2297af747a14982709c0faf111ae24c51ec92a06c6a1f3e147b1fb14da20f9
Browser address:
https://cn.etherscan.com/tx/0x1a2297af747a14982709c0faf111ae24c51ec92a06c6a1f3e147b1fb14da20f9
https://preview.redd.it/yqnsvlkqy8351.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=8893be2b99e14f4c175985d679e242b6780b45f1
ARPA Listed on HBTC
On May 28, ARPA was Listed on HBTC and launched three promotions. A limited amount of ARPA tokens were offered at 25% to 50% discount, and 2.2 million ARPA tokens were sold out within 36 seconds.
https://preview.redd.it/6iyktsusy8351.jpg?width=5000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d365f69b7e222642dd5170169310dec0eeac829a
For more information about the promotions, click the link below:
Hold HBC & Subscribe to ARPA and Enjoy 25%-50% Discount
Dear users, To celebrate the launch of the ARPA project, HBTC will launch event called Hold HBC & Subscribe to ARPA and…hbtc.zendesk.com
ARPA & HBTC Conducted Online Live Streaming
On May 28, Felix Xu, Co-founder and CEO of ARPA and Global Business Vice-president of HBTC Elsa conducted two online AMA live-streaming programs.
https://preview.redd.it/2ylnvlduy8351.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=dc9f84d499477df3b59b5bef0270ff0bc2b426fd

About ARPA

ARPA is a blockchain-based solution for privacy-preserving computation, enabled by Multi-Party Computation (“MPC”). Founded in April 2018, the goal of ARPA is to separate data utility from ownership, and enable data renting. ARPA’s MPC protocol creates ways for multiple entities to collaboratively analyze data and extract data synergies, while keeping each party’s data input private and secure. ARPA allows secret sharing of private data, and the correctness of computation is verifiable using information-theoretic Message Authentication Code (MAC).
Developers can build privacy-preserving dApps on blockchains compatible with ARPA. Some immediate use cases include: credit anti-fraud, secure data wallet, precision marketing, joint AI model training, key management systems, etc. For example, banks using the ARPA network can share their credit blacklist with each other for risk management purposes without exposing their customer data or privacy.
Team members have worked at leading institutions such as Google, Amazon, Huawei, Fosun, Tsinghua University, Fidelity Investments. ARPA is currently assisting the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology in setting the national standard for secure multi-party computation. ARPA is a corporate member of MPC Alliance and IEEE and is in partnership with fortune 500 companies to implement proof-of-concepts and MPC products. In 2019, ARPA was named as the Top 10 most innovative blockchain companies in China by China Enterprise News and China Software Industry Association.
For more information about ARPA, or to join our team, please contact us at [email protected].
Learn about ARPA’s recent official news:
Telegram (English): https://t.me/arpa_community
Telegram (Việt Nam): https://t.me/ARPAVietnam
Telegram (Russian): https://t.me/arpa_community_ru
Telegram (Indonesian): https://t.me/Arpa_Indonesia
Telegram (Thai): https://t.me/Arpa_Thai
Telegram (Philippines):https://t.me/ARPA_Philippines
Telegram (Turkish): https://t.me/Arpa_Turkey
Telegram(Sri Lanka):https://t.me/arpa_srilanka
Korean Chats: https://open.kakao.com/o/giExbhmb (Kakao) & https://t.me/arpakoreanofficial (Telegram, new)
Medium: https://medium.com/@arpa
Twitter: u/arpaofficial
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/arpachain/
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ARPA-317434982266680/54
submitted by arpaofficial to u/arpaofficial [link] [comments]


2020.05.28 04:48 KoreaMods Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - May 28th

Use this thread as a consolidated resource for number totals, discussion, questions, and resources related to the recent COVID-19 (코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea. Comments are set to sort by new so that the newest comments will be on top unless changed manually. This post will be updated with the latest statistics, resources, and frequently asked questions when possible.
Link submissions regarding the Coronavirus will be allowed outside of this megathread, but please keep the following contained to this thread:
Articles that have already been covered and non-Korea specific posts will still be removed.

Totals:

Confirmed cases Recovered Deaths Suspected cases
13,816 12,643 296 23,864
Source 2020-07-21 00:00
Official MOHW updates are now done once daily at midnight. Explanation thanks to LiveThatYouMayLive.
Site that periodically gets totals from city and region reporting sites from sidaeinjae
Ministry of Health and Welfare current totals
Ministry of Health and Welfare totals by city/region
Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention press releases in English

Precautions:

Symptoms:

What to do if you think you may have COVID-19

Ministry of Health and Welfare Novel Coronavirus English page

KCDC Call Center (1339)

How to Use
Service Hours: KCDC Call Center is available 24/7/365. All the services are toll free only in Korea (international rates are charged outside of Korea).
Call-back Service: You will be offered a callback when all lines are busy. Please leave your number.
For Foreigners: Please call 1345 (Immigration Contact Center) operated by the Ministry of Justice. Service Hours: 09:00-22:00 Languages: Korean, Chinese, English (09:00-18:00), Vietnamese, Thai, Japanese, Mongolian, Indonesian/Malay, French, Bengali, Urdu, Russian, Nepali, Khmer, Burmese, German, Spanish, Filipino, Arabic, Sinhala
KCDC Call Center Website

FAQ:

I have plans to travel to South Korea in the near future, will I be ok?
All travelers entering South Korea from abroad, regardless of nationality and duration of stay, will be subject to a 14-day mandatory quarantine. Any short-term visa holders (B-1 visa exemption (사증면제), B-2 tourist/transit (관광통과), C-3 short-term visit (단기방문), C-4 short-term employee (단기취업)) or long-term visa holders without a residence will be quarantined at government provided facilities at their expense (KRW 1,400,000 per person). Korean nationals or those on long-term visas with residences may quarantine themselves at their residence.
List of countries with travel restrictions on Korea (in Korean).
Korean Air's list of travel restrictions for visitors or residents of South Korea (in English).
I got an emergency alert, what does it say?
Please copy and paste the text or post a screenshot so someone can help translate. Emergency alerts are sent according to your location so someone even a few kilometers away may have not received the same alert. Also see these instructions from DabangRacer about how to get alerts in English.
I plan to travel to/from South Korea. Will I run into any problems in other countries?
Since this is an ongoing situation, it's best to check with the airline you will be flying with to see if there are changes to your itinerary and the country you will be traveling to to see if there are any restrictions on people flying in from South Korea. See the previous question for Korean Air's list of travel restrictions for South Korea.

Useful resources:

Misc:
Maps:
Other reddit resources about COVID-19:

Past megathreads:

Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - April 28th
Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - April 7th
Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - March 26th
Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - March 16th
Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - March 7th
Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - March 3rd
Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - February 28th
Policy update - Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Patient totals, discussion, questions - February 27th
Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Updates, discussion, questions - February 25th
Coronavirus (COVID-19 / 코로나바이러스감염증-19) outbreak in South Korea: Updates, discussion, questions
2020 coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in South Korea
submitted by KoreaMods to korea [link] [comments]


2020.05.25 05:32 teddyio How I got into Brown as an international transfer, why I didn’t go and what I learned

Hey there, I’m a third year university student from Australia. Over two years ago now I set out on a U.S. college transfer journey. Now, I should flag right now that it’s been a year since my decisions, but I wrote the bulk of this content in June 2019 when I could remember all the little minutiae of what had happened. I sat on that writing for a bit because initially I thought that I would just write it for myself, for closure, to set my eyes on better things, I wasn’t sure exactly why. But I guess quarantine has made me reflect on life decisions - the what ifs and the how-did-I-get-here’s. After much consternation, I’ve decided to publish this here. My story is unique - I began as a complete outsider and fought hard to achieve something pretty improbable - so I think it’s probably interesting to at least someone out there. I think there’s also some universal truths embedded within the things I learned in retrospect. Anyway, this post is incredibly long, so I’ve left a TL;DR at the end if you want to read the blurb before you buy the whole book.
Ok so, I want to properly begin by saying that going to an elite US college was never my dream. I’m a middle class kid who went to high school in inner city Sydney. It was very uncommon at my high school (which was to be fair, an all-boys private school) to even apply in the US. In my memory, there were a small number of athletes, comprehensively supported by coaches and my school admin, who eventually made it to top US colleges after years of planning. As a senior, I was decidedly not athletic (definitely got a 5 or 6 from Harvard on that criteria!). I was also over a year younger than most of my cohort. 16 year old me had no interest in international study (even despite my full IB diploma) — my goal was a combined medicine program at home. I ended up one diploma point off the perfect 45 needed for the medical program. Foolishly, I didn’t game out a proper plan B and ended up enrolling in medical science undergrad at USyd.
When I first enrolled as a freshman, I felt alone and adrift. I was in a cookie-cutter degree. My best friend had moved to across the world for uni, other close friends were still in Australia but at different universities. My only friend carrying over to my new university life was my ex-boyfriend (yes, for all interested, being gay in an all-boys private school is absolutely a write-home experience) who I was, fortunately, on good terms with. Over the first part of the year I gradually made new friends, and luckily a few great ones that I’ll still cherish for a long time. Academically I was doing pretty well - high distinctions and distinctions (Australian As and A+’s) - but I still felt totally uninspired. I missed the liberal arts education of IB and felt suffocated by the careerist culture in my degree. I wanted academic change but I wasn’t sure in what form.
One afternoon, I was speaking to an IB pen pal who was studying in the USA; he talked about his big plan to transfer to Princeton and that drove me to think if that might also be the best thing for me. Initially the list of requirements seemed dizzying, but I told myself, if I really wanted to, I could put this together in a year. Somehow I ended up on Harvard and Yale’s transfer admission pages, exploring for hours. To me all these universities were places Rory wanted to go in Gilmore Girls (sorry if that reference outs me too much) and so not yet shrouded in the “HYPSM” elitism and prestige with which I came to understand it eventually. Don’t eat me for dreaming of Harvard and Yale though, your media has permeated deep into our psyche in the Southern Hemisphere. Although I was interested, I decided it was all too hard.
Over the coming days, something kept drawing me back, forcing me to keep thinking about it. There were multiple advantages: these schools had a liberal arts vision, a major suited to my interests and it was a blissful 16000 kilometres from the disappointments, complications and complacent familiarity of my life in Sydney. Maybe it was worth the time. So in late May, I decided to set out on a year long process - sitting tests, writing essays, meeting with administration to organise documents and asking professors for their recommendations. I told people gradually and most people were confused why I’d even bother but were also very supportive. “You do you!”
The first hurdle was standardised testing. I’d missed that bus in high school and had a poor grasp of the commitment it would require. After some thinking, I resolved to sit the ACT in late October. I spent three months studying casually and felt pretty confident. My first practice test chugged out a reasonable 33/36 composite, so my end goal became 35. Unlike many of the high school juniors on the ACT forums, I didn’t have the advising and support networks that seemed to demystify the process. I don’t know what kept me motivated to keep slogging through all those menial rules, but ultimately I whipped myself into shape. A few days out from the test, hitting high 34s and low 35s consistently, I got my first 36 composite and thought, awesome. I got this. As I turned up to the city test centre that morning, I felt completely ridiculous. What was I doing this for? I didn’t really know but I thought it was worth seeing it to the end. So I got to my computer and cranked out my best effort. I knew reading went poorly but I had the maths section of my life. I got my result a few days later: 35. Not bad!
Next stop SAT 2 (btw Harvard this is a stupid transfer requirement and I hate you for making me do this) in December. I ended up studying a lot less than I should have for these because of university finals. For some reason I chose to take chemistry, my weakest IB score, and English literature. I turned up to the testing centre on Saturday morning with 2 hours of sleep under my belt. There were many more people there - two or three hundred at least. Families were bringing their nervous and eager kids to the centre and were cheering them as they walked in. I was alone, trying to avoid eye contact with students 2 or 3 years my junior I knew in my capacity as a debate coach and tutor. Subconsciously, I felt embarrassed. Here I was, sleep-deprived and with a full year of university under my belt, indulging a random whim I should have thought about in high school. Feeling dogged but determined to follow through, I somehow managed to push through two hours of testing.
The very next day I was flying to NYC for an unrelated family holiday. I planned to visit five of the colleges in the surrounding regions. As I did the rounds to each college, it was almost like a pilgrimage, to these places that I’d only known in the abstract as “where I might apply in March”. I decided to forgo Amherst and Columbia and focus on the 3 I’d had the strongest reaction to: Brown, Harvard and Yale. While in the US I got my university results which were pretty solid (4.0 for you Americans) and also my SAT2s. Somehow I’d netted an 800 in Chemistry and a 730 in Literature.
With my academic results sealed, I turned to recommendation letters and other misc admin. It was strange to ask for recommendations because USyd is a massive public university and classes routinely include thousands of students. It took me months of contact but eventually I felt I had one very strong and two reasonable letters, the best I could have done. After a long battle over emails with student admin, they finally sent my transcripts and college report to my respective colleges. The biggest uphill battle in all of this was that Australian educational infrastructure is not built to accomodate those who want to go the US. I mean duh, but still it made me want to tear my hair out!
By February, being the anxious and obsessive person that I am, I had read a lot about the transfer process. I knew essays were the true unknown and the biggest differentiator in US college admissions. I consider myself a good writer, I got a 7 in IB HL Lit and an A in my major work which was on lit. The college essays, I thought, were just another hurdle. The supplements were so long and required a level of saccharine introspection that bothered me to no end. I wasn’t sure what to write and had no ‘admissions counselor’ to discriminate good essays from bad essays. I had my trusty Indonesian friend and my parents to review. I submitted what I thought was honest and strategic about my academic motivation. To this day, I have no idea if they were good. To be frank, I almost don’t care.
Finally, after almost a year, March 1st 2019 came along. In what was perhaps an act of simultaneous hubris and futile hope, I submitted a complete application for Harvard, Yale and Brown. In the two month break before decisions, the curtains opened on my second year of university in Sydney. I also happened to take the Australian medical schools admission test, GAMSAT, that I’d spent a year working towards in the background of all this US business. After I finished GAMSAT in mid March, I tried to throw myself, unconvincingly, into friends and classes. I think I always knew consciously and subconsciously that I was holding myself back from letting myself be really vulnerable because I could be leaving for the US at a moment’s notice. In retrospect, that’s the reason I decided not to try my luck again.
Soon enough, my early May reckoning came around.
May 3rd, 4am: Brown. Accepted. It was a big shock. It was, funnily enough, also totally unaffordable. I sent an FA appeal that I knew was futile.
May 4th, 7am, theorised Harvard decision. This one I totally anticipated, there was all the precedent but it didn’t come. The anger of it all!
May 7th, 7am, actual Harvard decision. A total blindside. I had begun refreshing the Harvard portal every morning at 7am just for posterity sake. It was a Tuesday morning, mostly I thought it wouldn’t come out but I had to check just in case, right? Sure enough though, there it was. A status update. Rejected. I was upset, moped with fried chicken and alcohol and was over it soon enough. It didn’t suck nearly as much as I’d have expected. I still had Yale right?
May 10th, 4:15pm, GAMSAT results. *storytime* Let me set the scene for this one. Like transfer decisions, entire forums exist to predict GAMSAT results release and I was active on these too. Everyone thought GAMSAT was coming out on May 17 and so did I. I was on a bus to university a week before this anticipated date, panicking because I’d forgotten some images for a report due that night. My friend stopped texting me in the middle of a conversation we were having about food (banal I know, no judgment). 3 minutes later he responded: “GAMSAT is out. I’m dying.” I couldn’t open it on the bus because I forgot my password. I also didn’t want my morning bus to be the site of an unsavoury memory, I had to get on it every day!!! An agonising 15 minutes later, I’m panic calling with this same friend, arriving at university and b-lining it to the first park bench I can find. I open it: a 98th-99th percentile score, a virtual golden ticket to medical school admissions (or at least an interview).
May 11th, 7am, Yale decision. A rejection. I expected it after Harvard but it still hurt to see it truly come to fruition. With that it was curtains on my May days-from-hell. Time to plan and digest what had just happened.
Two for four. Or one and a half for four (financial aid!!!)? A thoroughly mixed set of outcomes nevertheless. I was pretty upset at the time but I have a different perspective a year on.
What I achieved in 2019 was one of my greatest personal achievements - I got into an Ivy League college against the truly stupendous odds for an international student. I did it off the back of pure ambition and resilience; it’s something I’ve carried with me through adversity ever since. I also managed to secure a great chance at postgraduate medical school, which I am now (2020) applying for to start in 2021. I couldn’t afford Brown, so I continued with my degree at home; the year spent attempting transfer a futile but important experience in the tapestry of my life.
Lots of things have happened in the last year. Initially I fully launched myself into my life, planning enrichment courses, working on friendships, changing degree structures a bit. I came to appreciate some of the little things about my own home university - the odd way Fisher Library smells, the anxiety and camaraderie of USYD Rants, the way the winter sunset lights up the sandstone in the quad. That ex-boyfriend? He became my boyfriend (again) and then ex-boyfriend (again again, don’t we love a bit of gay drama) after my US plans were put to rest. Since August 2019, I’ve lost more than 60 pounds, dyed my hair, made and sadly lost some friends and got an Amgen summer scholarship. I threw myself into all the messy and unsavoury, but ultimately fulfilling aspects of unvarnished adult life.
So… this isn’t a neat story. What do I hope people learn though if they eventually slogged through this self-indulgent narration?
First of all, trying to transfer to an elite college is really not all its cracked up to be. I’ll come to regret the moments that I didn’t seize because of my “grand plan”. I won’t miss the isolation it brought on and I will miss the people and experiences that I passed up on or simply denied myself because I felt that it would not fit in with my plan. *Don’t transfer for escapism* is a good mantra.
Secondly, outcomes aren’t everything. On an outcomes level, my life would be no different if I had never decided to throw my hat into the transfer ring. But at the risk of sounding likely a Hallmark Christmas card, the JoUrNEy is just as valuable. I learnt things about myself intentionally through the forced introspection of writing essays but what was perhaps most valuable was the unintentional realisations - I’m working myself too hard at academics to enjoy it, people matter more than achievements among many more. Try to enjoy the ride rather than the destination a bit more guys. Again, a total cliché.
Finally, the US college transfer system will dehumanise you and spit you out if you let it. Allowing yourself to be validated by institutions is a recipe for pain. Honestly, it breaks my heart a little to read posts on forums like these. As ambitious teenagers we are, in the main, incredibly harsh on ourselves. As I approach the ripe-old age of 20, I am still working on unlearning the toxic psychological distortions I inflicted on myself because I failed to achieve my almost masochistically hard goals of getting an IB 45/45 or getting into Harvard as an international transfer. I’m not telling you not to care. Please do care. But take some time to check in with yourself - most of you here are wonderful, intelligent people with many things to be grateful for outside of your achievements. You might be unconsciously dehumanising yourself with neglect - for me, it was letting my weight balloon out of hand, for some its personal hygiene and for others its a moribund social life. Often it’s a combination of many things that you don’t realise until a lot of damage has been done. Please learn from my mistakes, I plead with you all.
Good luck all of you, wherever you are in your process.
TL;DR: Alone, I went from knowing nothing to knowing many things about US colleges in my first year of university in Australia. I was admitted at Brown but couldn’t afford the cost. I was rejected by Yale and Harvard. In the meantime, I had major successes in my academics at home and came to appreciate my life a lot more. I later realised transferring cost me the opportunity to be vulnerable with people and caused me to dehumanise myself in various ways.
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2020.05.15 16:35 Crenzi 2local's Connected Companies

Binance
Binance is a cryptocurrency exchange that gives a stage to exchanging different digital forms of money. As of January 2018, Binance was the biggest digital money trades on the planet as far as exchanging volume.
Binance was found by Changpeng Zhao, a designer who had recently made high recurrence exchanging programming. Binance was at first situated in China, yet later moved out of China due China's expanding guideline of cryptographic money.
Chief Changpeng Zhao had recently established Combination Frameworks in 2005 in Shanghai; the organization built high-recurrence trading systems for representatives. In 2013 he joined Blockchain.info as the third individual from the cryptocurrency wallet's team. He likewise worked at OKCoin as CTO for not exactly a year, a stage for spot exchanging between fiat and digital resources.
The organization was established in China but moved its servers and base camp out of China and into Japan in advance of the Chinese government restriction on cryptographic money exchanging September 2017.By Walk 2018 the organization had set up workplaces in Taiwan.
As of January 2018 it was largest cryptocurrency exchange with a market capitalization of $1.3 billion
Know more details: https://www.binance.com/en
Stellar
Stellar is an open-source convention for trading cash or tokens utilizing the Stellar Accord Convention. The stage’s source code is facilitated on GitHub.
Servers run a product usage of the convention, and utilize the Web to interface with and speak with other Stellar servers. Every server stores a record of the considerable number of records in the system. Exchanges among accounts happen not through mining but instead through an agreement procedure among accounts in majority cut.
Stellar is an open source, decentralized convention for advanced cash to fiat cash moves which permits cross-outskirt exchanges between any pair of currencies.The Stellar convention is bolstered by a 501(c)3 philanthropic, the Stellar Improvement Establishment.
Know more details: https://steexp.com/account/GAPCSW7SIUH6ZY2J3Y3G2QTC2D6TD4G5FFN7BNHXALVQW24OJ2PXCFMF
Desi.Airdrops
Desi.Airdrops has begun activities in January 2017. Following year and a half of huge research on Digital currency and Blockchain innovation , at long last we propelled DesiAirdrops in August 2018 . The aim behind Desiairdrops is to achieve mindfulness cryptocurrencies, Blockchain and free airdrops. Digital money technologiesies are in effect new , a large portion of the clients don’t have the foggiest idea how to enroll airdrops, and how to guard their own information while enlistment. Through our articles and you tube channel we are making mindfulness for learners and new comers into Digital currency world and Blockchain space.ined on. We began our crypto venture with two individuals and stretched out the group to 6. Our inscription is " We are focused on bring your genuine airdrops". So With due persistence and appropriate confirmation of each task by our group we post just genuine and credible airdrops in our foundation With our steady difficult work and preparation about venture we win numerous hearts internationally and pulled in the clients by delivering the correct airdrops in our foundation on time . To bring you quickest airdrops our group is covering record-breaking zones and posting the airdrops where you don’t miss any single airdrop in the event that it is constrained for specific numbers. To cover the all day, every day bolster we are spending a great deal for the upkeep and on framework. Our objective behind all day, every day administrations is to make our clients increasingly valuable and they ought not miss any single airdrop . We are in creating our locale and bringing a hastle free encounter through our recently presented highlights. Expectation you appreciate the excursion with us.
Know more details: https://www.desiairdrops.com
Zexprwire
Zexprwire has emphatically molded the PR conveyance administration industry with its surprising duty to customer support. We offer more reach and more prominent perceivability so you can show signs of improvement returns on your correspondence spend.
Instant Visibility
Do you have a PR thought all set? Interface with us and we will arrange it to a huge arrangement of journalists and media concentrates in a flash.
Guidance on Content
We will help you with making an amazing Public statement included focused on Web optimization watchwords that truly advances to your proposed intrigue gathering.
Simple, Quick & Cost effective
We can guarantee you it is easy and easy to utilize and financially savvy dispersion administration. Simply connect with us and our group will handhold you through the whole procedure.
Multimedia content
Associate with your crowd through – recordings, photographs, infographics and sound bytes. Increment your perspectives and commitment multifold.
Know more details: https://zexprwire.com/
P2PB2B
P2PB2B‌ is a propelled digital currency trade that works to serve its clients. So as to make your exchanging much increasingly helpful and safe, the stage has all the vital highlights and devices.
700+trading sets 300+ сoins/tokens $900m+ day by day exchange volume 300k сommunity IEO launchpad
Why P2PB2B?
Superior
The fundamental distinctive element of P2PB2B is support for handling pace of up to 10,000 exchanges each second and 1,000,000 TCP associations.
Multilingual day in and day out Help
We communicate in your language: English, Chinese (Mandarin), Japanese, Russian, Indonesian, Spanish, German, Korean.
Improved UI
Our site is a Solitary Page Application that empowers quicker communications by means of dynamic substance refreshes. This implies it works quicker for you.
Multicurrency
We support more than 200 cryptographic forms of money and fiat cash, including BTC, ETH, USD, and others.
Concentrate on Security
Over 95% of all digital forms of money are put away in cool wallets. We likewise use WAF (Web Application Firewall), a defensive screen of an Internet application that recognizes and squares programmer assaults.
Know more details: https://p2pb2b.io/token-sale/L2L/1
PayPal
At PayPal, we put individuals at the focal point of all that we do.
What Our identity is
Filled by a crucial conviction that approaching money related administrations makes opportunity, PayPal (NASDAQ: PYPL) is focused on democratizing budgetary administrations and enabling individuals and organizations to join and flourish in the worldwide economy. Our open computerized installments stage gives PayPal's 277 million dynamic record holders the certainty to associate and execute in new and ground-breaking ways, regardless of whether they are on the web, on a cell phone, in an application, or face to face. Through a mix of mechanical development and key associations, PayPal makes better approaches to oversee and move cash, and offers decision and adaptability when sending installments, paying or getting paid. Accessible in excess of 200 markets the world over, the PayPal stage, including Braintree, Venmo and Xoom, empowers shoppers and traders to get cash in excess of 100 monetary standards, pull back assets in 56 monetary standards and hold adjusts in their PayPal accounts in 25 monetary standards.
For more data on PayPal, visit https://www.paypal.com/about.
For PayPal monetary data, visit https://investor.paypal-corp.com.
Organization's Establishing Date December 1998
Site Address www.paypal.com
Corporate Home office 2211 North First StreetSan Jose, California 95131
Overall Activities 12312 Port Elegance BoulevardLa Vista, Nebraska 68128
LATOKEN
What is LATOKEN?
LATOKEN is a quickly developing crypto trade concentrating on liquidity for new tokens. LATOKEN entered CoinmarketCap's Best 20 in Walk 2019 and continues improving the outcome.
$300m+ every day turnover
More than 300.000 enlisted brokers
320+ crypto sets accessible for exchanging
Low exchanging and withdrawal charges
New exchanging sets are being included each week
Other than crypto exchanging, qualified LATOKEN clients can take an interest in chosen Tokens Deals at pre-deal and crowdsale stages. Security Token Contributions (STO) are likewise accessible on LATOKEN crypto trade.
Different highlights of LATOKEN Stage include:
Instant trade (LA DIRECT)
Propelled exchanging highlights
Crypto/fiat portal
What is LA?
LA is recorded on seven trades, including HitBTC (Top 10) and we're chipping away at posting LA on other significant trades.
Know more details: https://latoken.com/
Crypto-kyc.com
PESCHECK ® is an authorized universal foundation screening organization, situated in the Netherlands. We allowed a permit for screening by the Service of Equity. KYC by PESCHECK ® is affirmed in each nation on the planet.
Our scrambled information is transmitted safely at a similar encoding level as driving banks and government bodies.
Know more details: Crypto-kyc.com
VII Zurich Private Investment Forum
VII Zurich Private Investment Forum Overall occurred in Baur Au Lac on April 9, 2019.
More than 80 members – heads of Illustrious family workplaces, venture organizations, speculation organizations, and proprietors of speculation ventures have led more than 750 authority exchanges, and more than 3000 casual gatherings. Heads of organizations from the USA, UK , Europe, Asia, and GCC nations were available.
28 Nations
923 One-On-One Gatherings
80 ATTENDERS
https://youtu.be/Ih9hSS6HiGw
Know more details: https://pif.events/vii-zurich-private-investment-forum-worldwide/
Technofy
572 Project DONE 482 Customers 3,248+ Mug OF Espresso 50+ TEAM
Breathing life into your business thoughts!
About The Technofy
Being one of the main tech arrangement suppliers, we have been serving little and medium size business just as enormous undertakings. Our innovation ability, proceeded with conveyance greatness, and devoted group helped us stand apart from other application advancement organizations. Our enthusiastic web designers have made 100+ applications and programming and as yet going ahead. As the years progressed, Technofy has upset the procedure of application improvement.
Know more details: https://technofy.co.in/[Technofy](https://technofy.co.in/)
BLOCKCHAIN FOR BUSSINESS AND GOVERNMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST
The Assembled Middle Easterner Emirates (UAE) has driven the charge in nurturing acceptance of cryptocurrency in the area, and propelled a system that points for 50% of all administration exchanges to happen through blockchain by 2021.
Enjoy a reprieve from your ordinary working week, and explore 30+ long periods of unusual systems administration with 500+ senior-level professionals from governments and ventures alongside curated speculators, blockchain specialists and engineers spread across three days.
Planned in a personal lavish setting of Jumeirah Emirates Towers, we ensure all the spotlight is on you to assist you with raising assets for your ICOs/IEOs/STOs or lessen your business cycle like no other occasion!
Having 500+ C-Level Officials , 200+ speculators, 40+ Exhibitors, 50+ Speakers, 90% Chiefs
Know more details: https://bit.ly/3aZKxtq
NinjaPromo
The most splendid personalities in advanced at your administration
Set up in 2017, NinjaPromo is a Minsk-based office with impact the world over. We assist brands with associating with their clients by making individual associations in this advanced world. A large portion of them are still with us. The way in to our prosperity? We carry individual to computerized.
We are advanced specialists
NinjaPromo works with the organizations found everywhere throughout the world, from the USA to Hong Kong. We make content, procure clients, create drives, raise financial specialist assets, and change the organizations' countenances in web based life by conveying custom arrangements and furnishing customers with skill and new thoughts.
$4+ mln in promoting spend
1379 crusades propelled
4500 + promotion creatives aced
102 yr group's involvement with advanced
+31 most splendid personalities
37 fulfilled customers
Know more details: https://ninjapromo.io/our-case
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
Website: https://2local.io/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/2local1
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/2local-2297961593816000
Telergram: https://t.me/Group_2local
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/19002320/
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/use2local
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/2local_1/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAtpMQjkt1d72X8Tv8D8bsQ
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The Most Famous Dating Sites In Malaysia 480p Unmarried Couple Caned in Indonesia - YouTube Stunning Filipinas Expose Cebu International Dating Scene ... ALL Asian Dating sites are SCAMS! - YouTube 10 Days = Wife: Love Translated (FULL MOVIE) - YouTube Why You SHOULDN'T Date A Chinese Girl - YouTube Most Popular DATING apps and sites 2000 - 2019 - YouTube SPEED DATING. CEBU SINGLES. FUN COMES TO CEBU. CASTLE PEAK ... Indonesia Bali Nightlife with Freelancing Girls 2019 - YouTube This 18 Year Old Girl is Dating a 68 Year Old Man - YouTube

The Best Online Dating Sites in Indonesia – 2019 Edition ...

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